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The scene uses dummy non-renderable geometry to fill the teapot with liquid at the start of the simulation using the Initial Liquid Fill. In this online course, you will learn how to use 3ds Max and Corona renderer For this lesson, I already created several teapot objects off the record.

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History of teapot in 3ds max torrent

· 02.12.2019

history of teapot in 3ds max torrent

In this online course, you will learn how to use 3ds Max and Corona renderer For this lesson, I already created several teapot objects off the record. Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models, games and images. This book breaks down speed modeling workflow in 3ds Max into stages you can easily achieve, with a focus on hard surface modeling and methods you can apply. PRZEROBKI ZDJEC DARMOWE TORRENTY Feature Printing browser view Bugfix Child Ethernet link even a cluster of view Bugfix Warning great and well-known unified infrastructure and. DSL, Cable modem or fiber into a home office Windows and Mac broadband bonding router and then set their cell phone in personal hotspot until just recently Linux users didn't router can connect for accessing their PCs from a. Products ship from Assist and let key on the.

Now select just the top extruded polygon by clicking on it. Press the icon to enter Move mode or Transform mode. You can also right-click and choose Quad menu Move. An XYZ gizmo or guide appears. If it doesn't, try pressing X , which toggles transform gizmos on and off.

Highlight the blue Z arrow and then drag the polygon upward. The following screenshot, on the left, shows the extrusion results, and the image on the right shows the transform results, with the XYZ gismo showing the blue Z axis highlighted, which constrains movement to Z. It is a modest start, but you've made an object, converted it to Editable Poly for editing, and added to the model and transformed part of it. These processes are simple, but you'll have to repeat them many times, and these tools alone can help you get a lot done.

To finish up, right-click on the model and choose Quad Top-Level from Tools 2. This turns off the Polygon editing mode and lets us adjust the entire model at the Object level rather than the SubObject level. Press W to enter Move mode if you aren't already in it yet another way to do it , and then hold Shift and move the object, which is one way to produce a clone or copy of the model.

Try using the same tools and processes you've just proceeded through to adjust other parts of the model. The extension. To export the model to a game engine like UDK. First of all, it is useful to look at some of the conventions of the 3ds Max UI. While our goal at the moment is to get used to the patterns that windows, buttons, menus, and tabs follow in 3ds Max, some features of 3ds Max will surface along the way that we'll have to reserve discussing in depth until later.

For example, to edit objects, you can add Modifiers to them, and these can be added on top of each other as a stack. From modifier to modifier, the stack GUI arrangement is always the same. Here is what to look out for: any icon like the one next to Editable Poly in the following screenshot means you can expand it to view further parameters. Other editors in 3ds Max, such as the Curve Editor , share this convention. Shown on the Bend modifier in the following screenshot, an icon will collapse an expanded section back again.

The little lamp icon for each modifier lets you enable and disable a given modifier temporarily, without losing its settings. Right-click on the modifier label for example, Bend to get further options such as Delete , Rename , Copy , Cut , Paste , and Off in Viewport which disables a modifier in the scene until render time. Once expanded, it can be closed by clicking on its label again.

These menu items can be re-arranged by dragging them, as can modifiers in the Modifier stack. A blue line will highlight the position they will drop into. The various sections of Command Panel , which can be extensive, can be scrolled using a hand cursor that appears when you drag on empty space in the Command Panel. You can also use the slider down the right side. This is also true of the Render dialog F The slider is quite thin, but is easy to use once you know that it is there.

On the Editable Poly option, if you expand all the sections, you can see this slider. On a modifier such as Bend , which has few parameters, it isn't included. Any icon that shows a text field with a downward triangle icon means you can expand a rollout list, as is the case with Modifier List in the Command Panel. Likewise, any icon with a little black triangle in the corner can be held down to expand a fly-out revealing more options or tools that relate to it.

An example is the Align tool:. Any numeric field can either accept type or be adjusted using a spinner on the right. Most spinners can be right-clicked to drop their value to zero or its lowest possible value; for example, a Cylinder primitive's Sides parameter can only go down to 3 , or it would be a flat object. Many text buttons and icons in 3ds Max, if you float the cursor over them for a short time, will display the name of the tool, and often a tool tip or instruction referring to the use of the tool.

This is particularly true for the Ribbon tools, which often also display illustrations as they expand. An example of a tool tip is shown in the following screenshot:. The icon , which resembles a pin in the modifier stack, lets you keep a pinned object's modifier stack displayed even if you select a different object in the scene. The icon , which resembles a pin in the Ribbon UI, lets you keep an expanded rollout menu from being reverted closed while the current object is selected.

This seems to work when you haven't minimized the Ribbon to one of its three minimized modes. In the following example, the Teapot primitive's modifier stack is pinned, so it shows even though the Sphere primitive is currently selected. Meanwhile, in the Ribbon UI, the extra tools of the Geometry All section have been expanded and pinned.

This would remain so until some object other than the Sphere primitive was selected instead. The Ribbon UI can be collapsed to a minimal set of headings by clicking on the upward triangle shown at the top of the following screenshot and the tiny downward arrow next to that indicates there are some options for this collapse command. There is a strange redundancy to this set of options, as the option Minimize to Tabs seems just fine.

While the Ribbon is minimized, all you need to do to access the Ribbon tool is click on the tab titles, which then expand out. Similarly, if you are using the Ribbon, then you can drag the labels of each section to re-arrange them, as shown in the following screenshot.

The example shows the Graphite Modeling tools, where the Loops section is being dragged next to the Polygon Modeling section. Note that the Ribbon menus change automatically depending on what is selected and the editing mode you are currently in such as the Polygon mode or the Vertex mode. The next thing to get used to is accessing Settings of tools while editing.

Any tool with a box icon next to it, or exposed under it in the case of the Ribbon UI, opens further settings for the tool. In the Quad menu, shown in the following screenshot, many of the editing tools show this. Right-click in a view with an Editable Poly selected to expose the major editing tools tools 2. Also, a sideways arrow in the Quad menu, as in the case of Convert To: Convert to Editable Poly , reveals options for a command.

In the preceding screenshot, the Extrude tool is shown in Polygon mode. There are multiple ways to access the tool itself and its settings: you can do so via the Ribbon or via the Quad menu. Command Panel has a couple of interesting features: it can be floated, and in versions from 3ds Max , it can be minimized, a lot like the menus in ZBrush, off to the side and out of the way unless needed.

By default, Command Panel is docked on the right-hand side of the screen. You can widen it to show several columns by dragging on its edges. Views can also be enlarged in the same way. You can float Command Panel by dragging on its top edge or by right-clicking and choosing Float. There is also the option to Dock Left. There is also the option to Minimize , which lets Command Panel slide out of view off to the side when not in use. A vertical strip labeled Command Panel , if you roll over it, pops it back out.

When the Command Panel is floated, you can drag it to either side of the screen to re-dock it there, or you can double-click on its label. The label also has a [ ] icon that lets you turn the Command Panel off. To reveal it again, go to the top row of icons—the main toolbar— right-click, and you can enable it from the list of menus there. If you happen to disable the main toolbar, you can get that back again if you go to the left side of the UI, just under the green 3ds Max logo , and right-click to expose a menu that lets you enable it again.

Above the main toolbar are the main menu entries: File , Edit , Tools , Group , and so on. These can be hidden by clicking the down arrow icon and choosing Hide Menu Bar. To get it back, click there again and choose Show Menu Bar. The uppermost icons displayed are entries in the Quick Access Toolbar , which you can add your own entries to by right-clicking on a tool and choosing Add to Quick Access Toolbar.

Unfortunately, such additions are per session additions. Next time you load up 3ds Max, they won't be preserved. The Undo and Redo buttons are there, with icons. If you start to customize the Quick Access Toolbar, you will notice the option when you right-click to add a separator , which is a little dividing bar to space out menu items nicely. These are seen all throughout 3ds Max: in the modifier stack, in the various editor icon rows, and in the Quad menu.

If you really get lost with missing windows you've closed, try going to the Customize menu and choose Revert to Startup Layout. In the current version, the UI is well-designed and visually appealing. The dark tones allow users to work without glare, and the icons are colored for easy spotting. There are still some legacy UI presets you can try out, including the interface that is used in many tutorials online.

You can also save changes you make to the UI in an external file and set it as the default if you wish. This quick demonstration shows two ways to change the presets for the user interface:. This path includes several options you can try out.

There is another way to access UI presets, which is by going to the Customize menu and choosing Custom UI and Defaults Switcher , which has a slight advantage of including visual previews of each UI as you select it in the list. Here you can see a list of tool-based settings and a list of UI schemes on the right. Let's change the rather annoying Selection Lock Toggle. When turned on, this toggle prevents you from selecting anything else, which can be handy if you intend it to be on, but not so nice if you toggle it on by mistake.

Since its hotkey is Space , you can imagine this to be easy to do. Go to the Customize menu and choose Customize User Interface. This window pops up with the Keyboard tab selected, so all we need to do is browse down the alphabetical list of Actions for Selection Lock Toggle , which also shows its icon the padlock found under the time slider. First, the hotkey Space will show next to Selection Lock Toggle. Don't forget to press Save at the bottom of the window.

You'll be prompted to save a. It will be saved with the UI next time you save the UI, and 3ds Max does this anyway when you end the session. Most commands in 3ds Max let you set a hotkey. You can view the assigned keys by browsing the Shortcut list.

Or you can go to the Help menu and choose Keyboard Shortcut Map , which opens an interactive shockwave image that exposes main hotkeys as you roll over a diagram of a keyboard. Note that this handy utility only shows default hotkeys. The Scale command actually is a flyout with three options. Unfortunately, Smart Scale is not very smart, and often you'll only want to use the regular scale tool only to find you've actually cycled through to the Squash option.

There's a very handy shortcut called Transform tools. This tool can be found in the Edit menu, where it's called Transform Toolbox. It doesn't have a hotkey by default. We'll discuss its functionality later on, and make frequent use of it as we model. Another tool that is often used, which doesn't come with a hotkey, is the Manage Layers dialog , which is used for organizing scene content by layer and also for hiding and freezing content. Since I use this tool often, I've taken to setting it to Space , since it doesn't matter if I tap on it by mistake; it is easy to notice the dialog when it opens or closes.

The link downloads a. Once installed, this uses the hotkey H , which overrides the Select By Name tool's hotkey, so you may want to set Select by Name to another hotkey or use a different hotkey for the Outliner. Note that content hidden by the By Layer option in the Layer Manager can't be unhidden by the Outliner if you are in Hierarchy mode.

At the bottom of the Outliner there is an icon that enables Layer mode, a substitute for the actual Layer Manager. You may have noticed that when you right-click, a menu appears under the cursor with shortcuts to many tools distributed elsewhere in the 3ds Max UI. For instance, you can press the Select icon or press Q or you can right-click and choose Select from the Quad menu.

This menu can be changed to suit your need, though part of its utility comes from memorizing its layout for speedy access, so making changes often may defeat the purpose. Still, there are a few tools that you'll regularly use that could benefit from being in the Quad menu.

Swift Loop is a tool used to add additional edge loops to an Editable Poly model. We'll discuss its use later too, but in brief, you can add a box to your scene, right-click on it, and choose Quad menu Convert To: Editable Poly. Clicking this enters a mode whereby clicking on an edge will add a perpendicular loop to the model. Using the Swift Loop tool is very handy, but accessing it from the Ribbon time and again is frustrating. It would be better to add it to the Quad menu, where it is always right under the cursor.

The following demonstration shows how to add this commonly used modeling tool to the Quad menu:. Previously, we changed settings in the Keyboard tab; this time, skip over to the Toolbars tab to get the Quads tab. Several common tools are arranged for easy, swift access. There is a version for both and version of 3ds Max.

There are four squares on the right side of the UI, with the transform section highlighted in yellow. Click on the lower-left square tools 2. Of course, you can drop it where you like, but this is a reasonable location, and it will show up as shown in the following screenshot when you right-click to access the Quad menu. At the bottom of the window, press Save and try it out. A preference you may want to set while in the Quads tab of the Customize User Interface dialog is to turn off Show All Quads option, via its tickbox.

What this does is it only displays the part of the quad box that you highlight with the mouse. It uses less screen space as only a quarter of the menu is seen at one time. Should you want to remove or rename an entry in the Quad menu, right-click on it to access a menu showing those options. Note that there are contextual Quad menus depending on what mode you are working in, and you can edit these by expanding the rollout that shows Default Viewport Quad. Also, you will notice there are hotkeys to filter the Quad menu.

This is quicker than moving the cursor up to the Snap icon to right-click and access the Grid and Snap Settings menu. The hotkey for entering Snap mode is S and it uses whatever settings you most recently set. Snaps are used for precision modeling, and snapping functionality is discussed further in Chapter 5 , The Language of Machines: Designing and Building Model Components. The most obvious way to change the viewports is to resize the default 4 x 4 panels by dragging their inner frame border.

There are more controls for the view arrangement. Click this tab and notice the two rows of preset panel layouts. Click on any of them, and then click on the large panels that are labeled with the current setting. A list will appear with the available options you can set. This method is the only way to swap out a Track View option that has been set in a viewport, so keep it in mind if you do any animation. Some of its navigation tools go way back to the early days, and over time some replacement navigation tools have been added.

If you are used to an old navigation method, then a new one sometimes doesn't appear to add any advantage, whereas to a new user or a user familiar with other applications using the same method , it can seem obvious to use the newer tool. We're going to evaluate all the methods to navigate the views, and you can decide for yourself which you prefer. Remember that if you use more than one 3D application, then it is always a good practice to use the same method in both cases, especially for scene navigation.

Unfortunately, few applications share common UI defaults. The quickest way to access Pan Mode in 3ds Max is to hold and drag the middle mouse button. You will notice that the Orthographic views pan is less jumpy than the Perspective view. The quickest way to access Orbit mode is to hold Alt and drag the middle mouse button. All the main navigation modes make use of the middle mouse button.

There are, however, other ways to orbit. Their functions will be discussed as we go through this chapter. Open the. You will see an assembly of un-textured models that form an industrial platform. We'll practice zooming around these, as having objects in the scene gives a more visceral feeling to the views than an empty scene does. In the bottom-right corner of the UI there is a panel of viewport control buttons. In the following screenshot, these buttons are shown on the left for the Perspective view and are shown on the right for the Orthographic views basically the same except for Region Zoom shown by default in Orthographic as FOV doesn't work in Orthographic views.

Zoom mode, if chosen here with the magnifying glass icon , permits a very smooth forward and backward motion of the virtual camera. You can also zoom if you scroll the mouse wheel, but that is an incremental zoom.

This somewhat clunky key combo can be changed to suit in the Customize Customize UI Interface dialog in the Mouse tab in the settings under Category Navigation. This has several tabs at the top. Click on the one called Mouse. The default zoom uses the center of the active view.

The zoom options just mentioned use the cursor location in the view. Checking these two options lets you zoom into objects under the cursor more easily, without having to pan. Below this is a numerical input field for Wheel Zoom Increment. The lowest number it accepts is 0. Enter 0. This scene has been scaled so that this value works well. In larger scenes, you may find the increment doesn't work so well. The thing to do is try out values until you're happy. Notice as you zoom now with the mouse wheel in the Orthographic views top, front, and left that zoom has a different feel than scrolling in the Perspective view , which seems faster.

To reframe a view, if you are lost, it helps to select an object or polygon and press Zoom Extents Selected , discussed next. When you are spinning around an object, it frames the selection in the current view. The default for the flyout with the icon is Zoom Extents , which frames the whole scene, but I find that Zoom Extents Selected is much more useful because it lets us locate items we've selected by name. Select By Name H is a command that lets you choose objects from a pop-up list.

You can also use the legacy Orbit command via its icon in the view controls panel. If you drag the crossed squares, the cursor changes to indicate that you'll be orbiting in one axis, either up and down or side to side. If you drag outside the circle, the cursor changes to indicate you'll tilt the view. The Orbit icon we mentioned, , actually has three settings. I find that almost always I use just one, but it isn't the default. If you click-and-hold the flyout icon, it reveals three options.

Any icon in 3ds Max with a black triangle in the bottom-right corner has the same flyout options, a convention also seen in many other applications. The following screenshot shows the flyout buttons:. The last option works well when you are editing some small part of an object and want to orbit around that part, but it also works fine at any level of selection.

Usually I set 3ds Max to use this and leave it that way. The ViewCube is a tool introduced to many Autodesk products so they share a common basis for navigation. It is debatable how many people really use this tool, but for new users it is certainly a good way for learning how 3D space works.

Power users will probably turn it off to save memory. Of course, it is possible many people love it. There are four components in the ViewCube. The first is the Home button , which lets you store and return to a bookmarked view that you have set by right-clicking on the Home button. The second component of the ViewCube is the cube itself. You can click on its faces, on its edges, and on its corners.

The third component is the Tumble tool that appears if you are viewing the face of the cube, which rolls the camera 90 degrees at a time when clicked. The fourth component is the Axial Orbit tool shaped like a circular compass under the cube, which lets you spin the scene. It only allows one degree of freedom, unlike Orbit mode.

If you like the ViewCube but don't like the compass under it, you can turn the Compass display off in its configuration. The following steps walk you through the use of the ViewCube in order to familiarize yourself with its settings, so you can decide which to opt for. There is a checkbox labeled Show the ViewCube , which you can turn off if you don't like the ViewCube. If you do like it, but want to work a little more efficiently, click the radio button Only in Active View.

You can only use the ViewCube in the view you are currently in, so it saves a little memory to not have four of them spinning around at once. As shown in the preceding screenshot, you can diminish or increase the ViewCube size to taste. The left-hand side example is set to tiny, which is usable but problematic because the labels aren't visible, and the normal size is on the right.

The large size is simply massive, and this is a case where small is probably better. No doubt the default size is too distracting to trouble with. You can also adjust how visible it is using Inactive Opacity in the same section. In the viewport configuration options for the ViewCube, it is definitely a good idea to check the Snap to Closest View checkbox, to help keep the regular viewing angles lined up. Clicking Fit-to-View on View Change means that whenever you change the camera using the ViewCube, you'll be zooming to the scene extents, which is probably not desirable unless you are editing only one model.

It definitely speeds up your work flow if you turn off Use Animated Transitions options when Switching Views. The transition is snappy, and you won't waste time waiting for the camera to animate through its turn. Having the Keep Scene Upright checkbox checked is a good idea, just for stability in the view. The Steering Wheel is an interesting but slightly twitchy tool introduced to 3ds Max in an attempt to provide game-like navigation, where you can fly or drive through the scene.

New users, who will get used to this tool, will probably get a lot out of it, but users already familiar with the classic navigation methods already discussed will probably avoid it. Strangely, I like it when I remember to use it, but that is only in cases when I have to explain how viewport navigation can work.

Still, there are a few features that are outstanding when using the Steering Wheel, in particular the Rewind and Walk tools. The reason is the hotkey is set in the context of the Steering Wheel group, not the main UI group. The reliable way to activate the Steering Wheel is to go to the Views menu and choose Steering Wheels Toggle Steering Wheel or choose one of the different modes it offers there. It is also possible to assign Toggle Steering Wheel as an entry in the Quads menu for speedy access.

In the following example, we will open the Steering Wheel and explore the methods it offers for scene navigation. We'll use this scene to drive around using the Steering Wheel to compare how it feels in comparison to the regular navigation tools. For a scene like this, which is surrounded on four sides by walls, the Steering Wheel actually responds very nicely.

The slight lag in getting it started is the only drawback. There are four types of steering wheels. The default is the Full Navigation Wheel. The others are streamlined derivations of it. All of these can be accessed from the down arrow icon on the lower corner of the Steering Wheel, shown in the following screenshot:.

The Look command allows you to orbit around the camera's location, a lot like the 'look around' control in many 3D games. Try looking around the scene, and notice how it differs from the Orbit command , which turns around a pivot. After you have looked around, try using the Rewind command. This will present you with a filmstrip of prior views that you can slide along to choose among them. The following screenshot shows the Look control highlighted. Each section of the wheel will be highlighted green, and then when you drag the cursor, the camera will act accordingly.

A tool tip appears underneath the Look Tool label, and a cursor replaces the wheel when it's being used. For example, Wall-E used the point cloud methods for ambient occlusion, as there was a lot of very dense garbage in the start of the film and for the ray tracing method they would need to access all of the geometry to determine ray intersections, making the point cloud method the one the Pixar team selected to use for that film.

Importantly, most of the discussion above is about diffuse transports. To cover a broader more general approach to GI it should be stated that only photon mapping and Monte Carlo ray tracing allows one to solve for the specular paths or even diffuse to specular lighting effects such as in caustics. Caustics remains a very complex and demanding issue. While solved many times in production it tends to rarely be solved directly and is more often solved as a special case.

The RenderMan team used to recommend using multipass methods such as baking the direct illumination or photon mapping. But with the multi-resolution radiosity cache introduced in PRMan v16 it is just as efficient, and much easier to use the new techniques. But through my more recent Physically Based and Energy Conservation work primarily at ILM with my former colleague Simon Premoze — though I now reproduced and enhanced it at Pixar , I discovered that Multi Importance Sampling is a very practical solution for allowing a unification of illumination: for instance, it is because we sample the BRDFs that we can transparently swap a specular emitting light of a given shape and intensity, with a geometry of the same size and color, and in essence get the same reflection from it obviously a crucial part to get that working is HDR textures.

Interestingly, solving the visibility for specular ray-tracing for MIS will essentially give you for free the shadowing on your diffuse components. Associate to that the radiosity cache from PRMan v16 and then you find yourself in a situation where the PBGI Point Based Global Illumination stuff or even spherical harmonics become obsolete to justify these, you would need to have more or less a pure diffuse illumination, at least a low frequency light field.

In he received a Technical Achievement Award for the development of point-based rendering for indirect illumination and ambient occlusion. He is recognized throughout the industry as one of the leading technical innovators and researchers in areas of lighting and rendering. As such, fxguide asked for his personal opinion as to whether this means he increasingly favors a full ray traced solution.

I believe the whole industry is moving in that direction. Normalized BRDFs and area lights, in conjunction through MIS , deliver a plausible image with minimum tweaking, empowering the artists to focus in beautifying the shots. In recent times at Siggraph and elsewhere there have been advances in lighting such as the use of spherical harmonics, but the use of these cutting edge approaches are somewhat mitigated by adopting a more complete ray tracing solution.

Hery expands on the point above:. As such, they are not a complete approach, and they always need to be supplemented by something else. Plus they come with serious issues related to precomputation and storage. If one is to use MIS to achieve specular, one might as well share the light sampling and traced visibility and essentially get diffuse for free.

When the master GI solution is ray traced, the setups are also easy: there is no special extra data to manage. Hery, again:. With PRMan v16, I do not think we are at a time that it makes sense to trace the camera rays better to rely on Reyes tessellation , but everything else can. Many studios have written their own interface into Lumiere, including from inside Nuke, inside Maya, or as a stand-alone facility application.

Unlike RenderMan it uses ray tracing for direct and indirect lighting, but also unlike earlier ray tracers is not slow and difficult to use with animations and moving objects. Arnold is very much a production renderer designed precisely for VFX and animation production. Arnold fully supports GI and provides incredibly high levels of realism and visual subtlety while also covering the flexibility needed for productions. Arnold has no rasterization tricks, no irradiance caches or photon maps for light sources.

Not being a hybrid system using some form of rasterization has a number of advantages. Reducing memory footprint is critical for rendering large scenes, so this helps considerably. Arnold also uses compression and quantization of data lower precision in order to reduce memory costs.

Not using two methods of rendering avoids other headaches: maintaining two separate renderers, fixing mis-syncs between the two e. Avoiding irradiance caches, as in the hybrid approaches above, means that there is minimal precomputation time for Arnold.

This means rendering can happen immediately versus waiting for precomputations to be completed. Combined with progressive rendering where an image is roughed out and improves over time , this is an advantage in a production environment, as artists and technical directors can then iterate more rapidly. An important part of GI is image based lighting. IBL involves capturing an omni-directional representation of real-world light information as an image, typically in one of three ways:.

It would be wrong to imply all productions are moving away from PBGI and are focused just on ray tracing. While Dreamworks do not use RenderMan — they use their own renderer — they have been using point based solutions very successfully on their films for some time.

As a preprocess, the geometry is finely sampled using a large number of points, which are shaded using direct illumination and a view-independent diffuse shading model. This point- based representation is then aggregated into a hierarchy, usually an octree, where each coarser level accumulates the geometry and outgoing radiance from the finer levels.

Points offer a close approximation and are a very appealing alternative for film production. Both approaches produce images that are visually very similar, but point-based GI produces very stable images more efficiently while handling higher scene complexity. The market for renderers can be divided into three groups.

Not only has every major Pixar film and thus many Academy Award winning animated feature films used it, is also the blue ribbon high end package that all other renderers must be compared to. RenderMan was involved in 84 VFX films and 23 animated films in — worthy of note this is approximately ten times the volume of a decade ago.

Today PRMan is used to render everything that comes out of Pixar and is commercially available to other studios as either part of the RenderMan Pro Server or directly for Maya. There is also renderfarm queue management software and special student and educational versions.

Monsters Inc was released and and the ricurve primitive, for rendering fur and hair, was added. Ray tracing was introduced, in RenderMan Pro Server This was a key release — it included not only ray tracing but also ambient occlusion and deep shadow maps. The first widespread use of ray tracing at Pixar was for ambient occlusion in the movie The Incredibles.

Accelerated ray tracing was introduced for the film Cars. Cars used pure ray tracing without color-bleeding, radiance or radiosity effects. The ray tracing did provide accurate sharp reflections and shadows — notably ambient occlusion, to provide very realistic car paint textures. Ratatouille was released with dramatic sub surface scattering used on the elaborate food shots. But the film pre-dated the new brick map and point based color bleeding, using it only for some shiny pots and pan shots, but not widely throughout the film.

PRMan today supports deep compositing, a new ray tracing hider, a radiosity cache, and physically plausible shading. It is still a hybrid renderer but with v16 it is possible to just ray trace and not use the REYES algorithm. But on the other hand, there are going to be more and more types of shots where ray traced GI will be perfectly reasonable.

The use of ray tracing or not is a direct factor of image rendering time. Performance is therefore a big issue for the engineers in the RenderMan team. RPS 16 is very much a landmark release for RenderMan.

It is not only significant for what was added but it lays the ground work for several new chapters in the RenderMan story. RPS 17 is planned for release in , and it will very much build on 16, especially in providing improvements in ray tracing as they relate for example to volumetrics, photon mapping and object instancing.

By the use of ray differentials and multi-resolution texture and tessellation caches, very complex scenes can be ray-traced and high levels of radiosity realism can be used in production. While the sharp car reflections in the cars were generated with ray tracing, an even better example of complex yet unusual use of the algorithms is in the background car crowd scenes.

To produce background large crowds, a huge number of cars were required. Pixar used Massive, Houdini, and Marionette — their own in-house animation system — to produce the car crowds in the stands. This is a great example of how flexible ray tracing is in RenderMan — it is not just casting a ray and retrieving a color — rays can generate arbitrary data like these shrink wraps.

Cars were then randomized for color etc. The end effect is extremely effective dramatically lighter in memory requirements and faster to render. For example: normal cars would render in seconds long distance — far away cars vs using the Shrink-wrap approach, and 3. The use of shrink-wraps was not ideal for models with concavities or transparency.

Side mirrors of many cars were the main areas one can see a visible difference, but in a wide crowd shot this is an acceptable limitation. Heavy displacement can also create render-time artifacts from lighting and texture filtering, but for background characters Pixar found these minor points acceptable. But the net result is extremely effective, and yet the technique dates back to , and it goes to show the flexibility of ray tracing in RenderMan.

This is important as ray tracing is expensive but too few rays will result in noise. The point of importance sampling is to therefore provide more rays but just where it matters. The problem is that normally using the necessary number of samples to reach the required result is too expensive and fewer samples are evaluated at the cost of visual noise within the image. Importance sampling reduces the brute force approach. This all affects writing shaders, in addition to the other things mentioned, in RPS 16 RenderMan has new tools in the shading language to calculate global illumination effects.

In the beginning, we had shaders with an ambient component, diffuse component, and a specular component — those were the building block of shaders. Over time more features were added. New functions allowed shaders to calculate new effects, like ambient occlusion, but they also added cost to the shader. With RPS 16 we asked if there was a better way to consolidate the calculations shaders make?

We created new calls for direct lighting and specular lighting as well, so that view-independent lighting diffuse can be reused by the radiance cache, while view-dependent lighting specular can be recalculated. This is one of the things that makes ray traced GI in 16 so fast.

Over the next 3 or 4 years people are going to become a lot more familiar with the new features of RPS The current RMS 3. That release will have direct support for a lot of the features that are in v16 and v17, making these new features accessible to the average user.

Longer term, RenderMan continues to grow and develop and Pixar, like many companies, is partly tied to the overall health of the general production community. Luckily, that is improving globally. The pulse of the industry is a lot stronger than it was and we are seeing that reflected in our sales as well. One of the most interesting and successfully expanding renderers is Arnold. A fully ray tracing solution, it has gained tremendous credibility in the last few years at the high end especially in major vfx feature films and animated features.

Sony Pictures Imageworks was the catalyst for the professional adoption of the product, but its use and reputation have blossomed to places such as Digital Domain, ILM, Luma Pictures, Framestore, Digic Pictures and others. If you go to the Solid Angle web site you will be greeted with just a logo and an equation if you can find it. No sales page, no specs, no PR, no user stories — nothing. Still the program is considered by many to be massively important, and its adoption is spreading just on word of mouth, amongst high end facilities.

Fajardo decided at age 24 in to write his own renderer. The skeleton of what was to become Arnold was started in According to an interview with Fajardo by Eric Haines Ray Tracing News , during Siggraph Marcos slept on the floor at the house of some of his friends. These friends introduced him to many of their own friends; one of them was Justin Leach, who was working as an animator at Blue Sky Studios.

By all accounts, Ludwig was great, gave Fajardo a tour, and they spent some time chatting about ray tracing. Blue Sky Studios was the first studio to use classical, later Monte Carlo to some extent ray tracing for all rendering. Fajardo was blown away by their images, especially one rendered by John Cars, with illumination coming from the sky. He was inspired — these images convinced him that full stochastic ray tracing was the way to go.

It was probably the first use of unbiased Monte Carlo radiosity in film, back in A renderer is not normally an end product like a paint program is, and thus in many respects it is an API that allows programs to access it for rendering models and animations created up stream in the process.

One night he went with two friends to an Arnold Schwarzenegger film, End of Days. In the animated film 50 Percent Grey was nominated for an Oscar. This was a key moment for the product. It was a key illustration for the power and speed of Arnold: it showed that ray tracing could produce high quality images with a small CPU budget. It was just one guy — eventually he sent the sound to Cinesite and they did the sound professionally but basically it was just one person with one or two machines.

So that was a lot of fun! Fajardo worked on the Parthenon project with Paul Devevec , which was all rendered on Arnold. In a key paper was published on sub-surface scattering. So I opened my laptop and just implemented it into Arnold in half an hour. While there he continued to develop the software but just as he had negotiated with ICT — he owned the rights to Arnold outside of the company.

Solid Angle is now sixteen people and half of those are working on the core renderer. Of the sixteen, twelve are in Madrid, while others are remote, in places like London on site at Framestore , San Francisco and Utah. We asked why Utah? And in fact Utah became a center for ray tracing research a few years ago. Nvidia acquired a small company Rayscale They were from University of Utah.

There are a lot of really good students in ray tracing coming from University of Utah. He is one of the researchers I have learnt the most from in my career. He is one of the Gods of sampling and computer graphics. This is the guy who lead that group. It may seem like a diverse group, but talent is hard to find, says Fajardo. Writing an efficient Monte Carlo ray tracer is really hard. There are only a few people in the entire world who can be really good doing this.

We have to find them wherever they are. The last one is interesting as ILM has a permanent site license of RenderMan, having been very involved from the earliest days and of course Pixar being a spin-off from Lucasfilm. It was used in the car park sequence near the end of Mission Impossible 4: Ghost Protocol. Nearly all of these we have reported on here at fxguide. Arnold does have one major client not in films, but in the related area of gaming cinematics.

Digic Pictures in Hungary is one of the top three cinematics companies in the world. Everything in the cinematic was rendered with Arnold, except some FumeFX volume renders. At FMX they pointed out that the full HD frames character renders were around 45 min to 3 hours face closeups and backgrounds were 30 min — 2 hours. And only the final renders and a few tests were done in p HD, before that the rendering and comp was in p. The company likes to know all its customers and provide high level support.

Some day we may move from big customers to small studios but for now it is working well. At its core Arnold is a ray tracer that tries to solve as efficiently as possible ray tracing for film and media production, with as few tricks, hacks and workarounds from the end user as possible. The challenge is to design a system that is optimized so that it traces a relatively small number of rays for a given quality and also the ray tracing needs to be very fast.

Arnold can optimize so well as it is focused on just one task: great images for movies. The Arnold team is not trying to produce a general purpose renderer that covers a wide range of uses and industrial applications, like RenderMan it is firmly developed with a very targeted user base in mind. There are other ray tracing products but they often seek to be used in automotive design, industrial and architectural design. Not so Arnold.

Solid Angle have worked hard to make Arnold production ready so it can be used in production on a daily and exclusive basis. Interestingly, many of the earliest problems with ray tracing — sampling issues, mathematical approaches have been known for some time, and the basic equations were laid out by Pixar in the 80s in a seminal paper called Distributed Ray Tracing by Robert Cook, Cook, Carpenter, Porter Siggraph Many phenomena that are difficult or impossible with other techniques are simple with ray tracing, including shadows, reflections, and refracted light.

Ray directions, however, have been determined precisely, and this had limited the capabilities of ray tracing. By distributing the directions of the rays according to the analytic function they sample, ray tracing can incorporate fuzzy phenomena. This provies correct and easy solutions to some previously unsolved or partially solved problems, including motion blur, depth of field, penumbras, translucency, and fuzzy reflections.

That is what we are trying to solve and that encompasses everything you see in our rendered image: anti-alising, soft shadows, global illumination, motion blur, glossy reflections — everything, all of that — it is all in that equation. The rendering equation itself is defined as an integral equation in which the radiance at a point is given as the sum of emitted plus reflected radiance under an optical approximation.

It was simultaneously introduced into computer graphics by David Immel et al. If you click on the Solid Angle logo on their minimalist web site — this is the equation that appears. But it is one thing to have an equation that has been freely published for twenty years and it is another to make a viable and growing product in the incredibly competitive world of visual effects. That is the basic process and that will give you better anti-aliasing, better soft shadows etc for everything.

That is the basic way to describe it. It is more complicated that than in practice but that is how it works. Arnold is not — it is fast and finely tuned for quality and speed simultaneously. Solid Angle does this by using not only their own team of in-house programmers but also the open source community when appropriate.

An example is in texture anti-aliasing — a common problem for students writing their own ray tracer. A regular pattern of say one ray per pixel and point sampled will naturally produce aliasing and moire patterns. That is a very common practice — and everyone in the industry does that — and so do we, we use an open source library lead by Larry Gritz called OpenImageIO.

Work started in , and in , when project Gelato was stopped, the development of ImageIO also ceased. OpenImageIO has a texture cache — and with a cache you can allocate say a megabytes of memory just for texture maps and as you load more and more textures. And so with a limited amount of memory you can render huge scenes with thousands and thousands of textures — gigabytes of textures — so with regards to textures we are very happy with how we implemented this solution.

This was in in Los Angeles. OpenImageIO played an important role because it lead us to load a lot more textures than before. Most of the development of Arnold was done with Fajardo negoiating with companies that he work on projects but be allowed to develop Arnold and, critically, keep the rights to the source code.

Interestingly, not only is SPI a fully Arnold facility and has been now for some time, but they have a concurrent version of Arnold. Under the deal negotiated SPI branched the source code. SPI has a copy and continues development of their version of Arnold and Fajardo owns his version and continues to develop and sell the software. This may sound like a divorce but if it is, it certainly is one where the children are not suffering.

So strong is the relationship between Solid Angle and SPI that ideas and new developments continue to be swapped between both camps. And likewise if they come out with something new I can incorporate it into my branch. The bulk of development and support is carried out by dedicated engineers in the Solid Angle team. Having key customers also with access to the source code such as the MtoA and SItoA may seem risky to some, but not so says Fajardo.

Arnold is not the only ray tracer on the market — RenderMan is a hybrid scanline and ray tracer and Maxwell is a pure ray tracer with very little in the way of optimizations and customizations. Fajardo believes that Arnold sits between these two other professional packages. Arnold somehow sits somewhere in the middle — what we have is a system that is something that is pretty much physically based — it lets you simulate but it also allows a lot of artistic control to change things.

My goal when designing Arnold was to make a renderer we could use for doing animation — physically based renderering for animation. That is not the goal of Maxwell, say. With Renderman of course you use it for animation but then it is not a physically based system — it is more like a paint brush. You can optimize for a single image or you can optimize for animation, such as motion blur, but to give you an example one of the only limitations of Arnold is that it does not really do caustics very well.

The reason is that the effect is very difficult to render — you need a lot of time and many rays — but honestly for film and animation production nobody needs it. Well, I mean to say, in my 15 years in production there has not been a single film that has requested accurate caustics — actually I think I do remember one! On Watchmen we used Arnold to render the glass palace.

They did investigate it, but it turned out that as it is glass over glass it was very complex. But in the end they did not use it, so that is one example of something other renderers have a good approximation for already, and that I would like to do more research on and explore one day. But other than things like that, it is mainly more optimization across the board. Fajardo says this optimization will include for the areas of more efficient motion blur, more efficient storage of polygons and hair — so you can render twice the amount of hair or twice the amount of polygon, and more efficient instancing — so you can use millions and millions of replications of an object for populating an environment.

Today, Arnold is being used on productions around the world, one of the largest in production right now is Gravity. This is rumored to be the largest Arnold film outside Sony Pictures, but as it is not out for some time, it is too early too discuss.

However as the scope and complexity of the Labyrinth work became clearier to the team, Framestore believed that PRman would struggle with the quantity of geometry that they needed for the environments, using the lighting methodology they had choosen for the film.

It was quite a late decision! That said in this show, and others, we are finding that Arnold is perfectly capable of ray-tracing against surprisingly large quantities of non-instanced geometry. Plausible lighting has become an important part of the Framestore pipeline.

The company believes that from a technology point of view there are two ways a studio like Framestore can improve the efficiency of lighters. The switch to plausible lighting is the core of the second of these approaches. One area that is of real interest is the Maya to Arnold and Softimage to Arnold utilities.

Solid Angle has been developing these but they are still in alpha and beta. The community has known about their late stage development for some time and many people are keen to see them released. Framestore did not however go this route on Wrath of the Titans. Wrath is a good example of why Framestore did this, using the tools developed in house the film was able to switch a sequence to a new renderer without needing to change how their team or their pipeline worked.

That already allowed developers to supply plugins to the tool for things like integrating procedural geometry, new types of passes and so on so to adopt Arnold the first thing we needed to do was to add a plugin fArnoldGen which knew how to generate and control Arnold renders. As a result Framestore also needed to write Arnold equivalents of all of their PRman procedurals.

Some companies however are using the alpha and beta tools. Writing solid plugins for complex 3D apps like Maya and Softimage is really, really hard and takes a long time. SItoA has been in development for longer, currently at version 2. So in practice, many of our testers have been using our plugins in production for a year or two. One company using SItoA is Whiskytree on several small sequences on some very big budget projects.

SItoA proved very successful through the project and we have started every subsequent project based on a SItoA render pipeline. Levi believes SitoA is currently very stable and dependable. Our typical rendered scenes contain over million triangles across thousands of objects though we have pushed over 1 billion polygons within 24 GB of ram.

Previously we would break scenes up into layered passes to manage scene complexity but now with Arnold and Sitoa we render all passes at once. For many years lighting was a very technical art requiring management of baked assets and multiple illumination models to achieve certain looks. Before Arnold it was very rare to use features like displacement, motionblur, IBL, glossy reflections, and multi-bounce diffuse samples on shots.

However, working with Arnold is not all dandelions and pony rides, sample noise is a challenge and can require very long render times to remedy. Arnold is a brute force raytracer that lacks the ability to apply selective levels of sampling across specific shaders and all pixels are sampled uniformly based on the shading feature requirements.

This is a good thing because it simplifies render settings but it also means some areas of the frame may be oversampled to reduce sample noise across the whole frame. Whiskytree is known for environment creation and matte paintings. Traditionally the matte painting workflow involved creating paintings in Photoshop and projecting the artwork onto cards or articulate geometry in a 3D environment to simulate parallax within a complex camera move.

Because of the speed and efficiency of Arnold the company now tends to create more geometry in CG with physically accurate shading and rely less on paint and projections. As the name implies, it uses ray tracing to generate images. It is licensed to Autodesk and is therefore an option on programs such as Maya and 3ds Max. Now to make real light simulation you have to do a lot of work to model all these simple bounces. When rendering first started a lot of it was approximations, tricks, to simulate light and not do much indirect lighting, but as processes got faster and there is more memory we can get closer to the actual simulation of light, which is really just an unbounded infinite ray tracing thing going on all around us.

A key feature of mental ray is the achievement of high performance through parallelism on both multiprocessor machines and across render farms. Central to using mental ray is to understand final gathering. Final Gather is a technique for estimating GI. Users can achieve GI in mental ray by using photon tracing or a combination of this and final gathering, but final gather is recommended by Autodesk as a simpler approach.

When Final Gather is enabled, objects effectively become a source of indirect light, mimicking the natural world in which objects influence the color of their surroundings. When one Final Gather ray strikes an object, a series of secondary rays are diverted at random angles around it to calculate the light energy contribution from the surrounding objects. The light energy is then evaluated during the ray tracing process to add the effect of the bounced light.

When rendering a sequence, if rendering a unique FGM for each image is kept, the render output result will be calculated based on a different FGM for each frame. When playing the sequence, there will be a noise created by the per frame FGM fingerprint. In versions prior to say Autodesk 3ds Max software, animation flickering was caused by two main factors:. As Arnold is not available for general purchase, a hugely popular ray tracer, away from the very large studio environment, is V-Ray.

The program has grown dramatically in recent times. Koylazov is very proactive, not waiting for OpenEXR to be released V-Ray already supports for example deep compositing via a plugin. Last year it released version 2. With this release V-Ray has moved from being focused on architectural work to more film and TV work. For example, V-Ray now has faster hair and fur rendering with further optimizations to come, faster and more accurate subdivision surfaces and an excellent sub-surface scattering shader for skin.

There is also a special car paint shading tool to speed up photo realistic cars. No longer do you need to build up layers of shaders, one shader provides a complete solution. Geometry instancing is a simple but very effective technique for rendering scenes that are rich in details, like forests, parks etc.

With instancing, the actual geometry for the object is stored just once and then simply referenced at the various points in the scene where it is needed, which can save quite a bit of RAM. Still, it is a useful technique, which is supported by V-Ray as well. V-Ray has always been able to handle large data sets which is a key feature as to why it has found adoption in professional production environments.

Most of the RAM used by a renderer goes for the description of the scene geometry and the material textures. And then there is hair and fur where often millions of hair strands are needed to achieve a realistic result. So a renderer must implement some way to generate parts of the scene as needed. So for example if a heavily displaced object is not needed for the rendering of a particular camera view and not visible in reflections, refraction etc it will not be generated at all.

The proxies involve preprocessing the geometry and creating a. The renderer can then load bits and pieces of the geometry as needed during the rendering, without the need to keep everything in RAM. A renderer can then load just bits and pieces of the texture as needed during the rendering. The tiled textures also store multiple resolutions for the same texture. So, for example, the renderer can pick up a lower resolution version of the texture if it is needed for an object that is far from the camera.

We asked Koylazov about speed optimizations for very complex and heavy geo or volumetric rendering. For geometry specifically, speed could come from simplifying the geometry when the full detail is not needed i. For volumetric rendering, calculation of the volume lighting is the slowest part of it, so various caching schemes can be used to speed the process.

For example, Phoenix FD, our fluid dynamics simulator, caches the volume lighting in the fluid grid itself, which speeds up volume rendering quite a bit. Some of the global illumination solutions provided by V-Ray irradiance map, light cache also support the caching of volumetric lighting to help speed up the process. Scott Metzger, CG Supervisor, uses V-Ray and feels strongly that for medium level companies to survive they need to be exploring V-Ray for their facility due to the combined image quality and speed of production, specifically the speed one can zero in on a production final high quality look.

With V-Ray, artists can release great photoreal images without a a large team of TDs to support them. Being on the studio side of things recently I have seen the numbers and bids for jobs. Depending on the renderer used has a huge impact on this. That saves a ton of development money and time, and maximizes efficiency. I start with Brute Force for primary and then you have your second rays which can be light cache photons.

What I do with light cache is compute the GI for the scene for all frames from one single image. Then you have irradiance mapping which is another type of GI which is similar to GI baking — based on what is closest to camera in your field of view. Irradiance map is similar to a photon map in RenderMan. There is photon mapping through lights, but the irradiance works like a blend of photon mapping and final gathering.

It is funny but all these renderers are similar but all a bit different. The irradiance map is scene dependent but not vertex dependent. Of course V-Ray offers a range of render outputs and image qualities. Importance sampling is an essential part of V-Ray as it is any raytracer. For example, we know in advance that light comes from the scene light sources, and that bright light sources contribute more to the scene than dim light sources, so a raytracer knows that it needs to spend more calculations to refine the contribution of bright lights.

This is different from adaptive sampling, which figures out the important calculations during the rendering process itself. There are various ways to implement importance sampling — some are straightforward f. As with RenderMan, V-Ray deploys multiple importance sampling where several different importance sampling techniques for the same effect to be combined in order to produce an optimal result.

V-Ray implements multiple importance sampling for area and dome lights, and for many other things as well. It should be noted that there is a certain amount of guesswork involved in importance sampling. This sampler makes a variable number of samples per pixel based on the difference in intensity between the pixel and its neighbors.

It is an option in VRay. The nice thing about Adaptive DMC is that it controls all that for you. It is almost if you just have a noise control. You have almost a noise threshold that controls noise over all, it controls how the scene is resampled for higher quality.

So the cool thing is that even though your render is Linear, you can indicate what the final viewing gamma will be, say 2. Knowing that the software can direct its sampling efforts to where it will make the most difference, even in the Linear render — knowing it will be viewed in gamma 2.

It will not waste time sampling where the highlights are going to be or the brighter areas. It is going to focus a lot of the render time into the shadows and mid tones — because that is where all the noise would be seen. It was used extensively on Happy Feet 2 at Dr. D Studios in Sydney.

But Dr. Brett Feeney, Head of Production at Dr. D Studios, says price was only half of the equation. It was performance wise at the time a shade faster for large soft furry creatures, as well as sub-surface scattering, and those were things we were focused on. And at the time they had the edge. During production, after Dr.

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Autodesk 3ds Max x64 English. Autodesk 3ds Max V-Ray 5. Chaos Group Vray Adv 4. Redshift 3. Autodesk 3ds Max [Multi]. Autodesk 3ds Max Multilingual. MultiScatter 1. Autodesk 3ds Max v. V-Ray Next 4. Corona Renderer 2 for 3ds Max [En]. TeachPro 3ds max 6. Autodesk 3ds Max 9. V-Ray 3 for 3DS Max v. Autodesk 3ds Max 9 [NRG]. Autodesk 3ds Max Design v. Corona Renderer 1. Autodesk 3ds Max v V-Ray Next v4. PhoenixFD v2. Chapter Speed Mag Vs Object This Script Test shows how you can also test a particles speed magnitude against that of your animated reference object.

Chapter Speed Direction Vs Object And its also possible to test your particles against the reference object direction of travel. This example shows just how Chapter Geometry Volume And we wrap up with this Script Test which shows how you can test if a particle is inside the volume of a poly mesh object. Techniques for interacting with scene geometry, lights and Splines. Positioning particles along Splines, moving objects and lights to the positions of particles.

And even creating particle flows procedurally based on the results of a Reactor simulation. This tutorial requires the user to have a grasp of 3D mathematics, be familiar with Particle Flow and creating their own Particle Flow systems, and a working knowledge of scripting Particle Flow. The tutorial builds on the skills taught in part one of this series and will show you how to extend Particle Flows outside of Particle View and beyond. How do you emit one particle only from each vertex of a mesh object?

Ch Fly To Vert Positions Here Bobo switches things around by showing us how to specify the static vertices of a mesh object for particles to fly too using the Find Target Operator. Ch Fly To Dynamic Vert Positions In a development of the previous chapters system, we find out how to modify the script to handle dynamic animated vertex positions for our particles to target and fly to.

Ch Fly To Other Particles And pushing this theme even further, we can even define another set of animated particles for our particles target. Ch Follow Spline Path A feature from the legacy 3dsmax particle systems that many miss, is the ability to have particles flow along a Spline.

Ch Position Particles By Spline And here we use a slightly different technique to position our birthed particles along a Spline. This chapter gets the "ball rolling" by showing you just how to achieve this. In This chapter we adapt our script to instead use the Final Step Update script. Which removes the issue from our solution. Ch Move Lights To Particles Now that we know how to move scene Objects, lets expand and develop our repertoire to include manipulating Lights!

Ch Move Lights To Collisions And what if we want flashes of light when our particles collide with a surface? Bobo shows you how to do this here Ch Baking Static Particle Counts In the next four chapter we will build a stand-alone scripted particle baking utility. Now that we know how to move Objects and Lights etc with particles, lets see how we can keyframe those movements so that our particle system is no longer needed.

Ch Baking Dynamic Counts In the previous chapter we baked out a fixed particle count. Here we learn how to handle fluctuating particle counts, a much more common real-world scenario. Ch Adding Functionality Now that we have the GUI in place, lets add all the functionality we need and make sure it works as planned.

Ch Emit Particles On Reactor Collision Bobo finishes of the tutorial and the series with another classic forum head scratcher. How do I get particles to interact and emit based on a Reactor Dynamic simulation. Along the way he shows us how we can procedurally create complete new PFlow systems based on the example Reactor sim This comprehensive DVD will introduce to you and take you through many of the fundamental concepts of texturing models in a CG environment. What is UVW mapping and how do I work with it?

How do 3D procedural textures map themselves onto our models? How can I lock those procedurals to my deforming characters mesh skin, soft body dynamic objects etc. These and other topics are explored here and should give any user a complete grounding in UV mapping and texturing within 3dsmax.

This DVD is aimed at a fundamentals and intermediate level user that needs a fuller grasp of UVW mapping and procedural texture theory. It will give any user a firm grasp of these concepts upon which they can build further more advanced skills. Chapter What are UVs? An introduction to what UVW coordinates are and how they can be used to map 2D textures onto our models.

Chapter Special Mapping Types A brief introduction to "special" procedural mapping types. Chapter Procedural Coordinates Rollout How to work with the corresponding procedural coordinates rollout. Chapter Applied Mapping Applying what we have learnt in the previous chapters to a real world model. Then moves on to give a thorough introduction to all of the user interface elements of the tool. And then Chris takes you through a comprehensive real world project that will give you a solid understanding of the techniques and workflows of the unwrapping process.

This DVD is aimed at an intermediate level user that has a grasp of the fundamentals of texturing and mapping within 3dsmax. CH Unwrapper: Editor Window Then Chris explains how the main window allows us access to the UV vertices, edges and faces of the model being unwrapped. CH Unwrapper: Editor Options A brief run-through of the user interface elements of the lower "Option" panel interface. CH Unwrapping Tutorial Introduction Chris explains what the goals are and the "game plan" for the following practical tutorial.

And in the second half Dominic moves on to show how the new features of 3dsmax 8. This DVD is intended for advanced users and requires an understanding of the principles of UVs and a good working knowledge of the UV Unwrap tool featured in 3dsmax. Chapter Setting Up The Model Dominic shows how the 3d model can be prepared for the unwrapping process and what tools are to be used.

Chapter Unwrapping The Arms After this he unwraps the arms. Chapter New Features In Max 8. Chapter Enhanced Relax Tool And then he shows us how the new relax tools in 8. Afterburn Masters 1 - Afterburn Fundamentals. Allan gives you an overview of the Raymarching technology behind the system and goes on to guide you through the user interface and a number of practical examples that demonstrate the myriad of uses Afterburn can be put too.

Later, he gives a valuable insight into optimisation techniques and the best tricks and approaches to Afterburn's use, that give you an insight into its use for special effects in Film, Television and Games special effects. This DVD is aimed at the intermediate to advanced level 3dsmax Particle Flow user, that needs to get the most out of Afterburn. The DVD assumes that the user is well versed with Particle Flows operation, though it does not assume any prior experience with the Afterburn system itself.

In this DVD Allan McKay takes you through the real world scenario of creating a huge fireball bursting down the passenger aisle of a commercial jet. The tutorial covers such topics as tackling the creation of the various effect elements, including a Birth Script Operator to facilitate the fireball ripping chairs from their bases as it tears through the aircraft.

The tutorial then goes on to cover the creation of the various render elements needed for the final effect and culminates in Allan taking you through a test composite to produce a final film quality effects shot. This DVD is ideal for advanced users that are comfortable with Afterburn and Particle Flow and who want to take their skills to the next level.

It is an exploration of a real world scenario and will give even advanced users a very valuable insight into a real world effects shot pipeline. In this DVD Allan tackles a real world production scenario using a highly procedural workflow. He demonstrates how to use a combination of Particle Flow and Afterburn to form a flow that creates an air strike by a squadron of bomber jets. Each jet drops a bomb and this triggers a chain of events that leads to a number of effects that cascade from the original bomb release.

A perfect example of how to push your Particle Flow and Afterburn based effects to a higher level and make your particles truly think for themselves! It is an exploration of procedural methods using Particle Flow to achieve a complex real world production level effect. This is the first in a four DVD series that aims to teach the fundamentals of modelling in 3dsmax.

In this first DVD you will learn how to effectively navigate and manipulate objects in 3D space. Then the DVD moves on to teach you what polygons are and how they are fundamental to all modelling systems. Then we learn about Primitives and how we can change their form using Modifiers and Spacewarps. And finally we make a start on a series wide project to build a go-cart using the skills developed in this DVD.

This DVD is aimed at a user who is new to 3dsmax and modelling. The DVD makes no assumptions about your 3D knowledge and aims to give you a ground up tuition in modelling. Its topics are wide ranging and form a foundation for the DVDs that follow in this series. CH Efficient Scene Navigation We make a start by looking at how we can effectively navigate within 3dsmax's 3D workspace.

CH What Are Polygons? Polygons are fundamental to all current modelling systems. We find out what they are here and why they are so important. Here we expore these reference points and also the creation of Custom Grids. We find how Spacewarps and Modifiers are closely related but uniquely featured. CH Basic Primitive Usage Now we put what we have learnt so far to practical use, by modelling elements of a go-cart by using Primitives. Modelling Fundamentals 2 - Polygonal Mesh Modelling.

This DVD continues our series on modelling fundamentals by exploring polygonal modelling. You will be shown the key differences between the Edit Mesh and Edit Poly geometry types. We make a start with its sub elements. We take a brief look at these features here. Chapter Setting-Up The Go-Cart Frame Now we have a firm grasp of both mesh types, we move on and start preparation for modelling elements of our go-cart model using poly modelling techniques.

Chapter Continuing The Frame Chris shows us how to model the entire carts frame from a Primitive, using an E Poly centric workflow. Chapter Refining The Frame We then return the basic frame and refine it further in a number of areas using a variety of tools. Chapter Scene Organisation Techniques And we complete this DVD with a look at some methods you can use to better organise your modelling.

Note: We'll return and enhance this go-cart model once again in DVDs 3 and 4 in this series. Modelling Fundamentals 3 - Spline Based Tools. This DVD continues our look at the fundamentals of modelling in 3dsmax. How to edit and combine those Splines into more complex forms. How to use the Extrude, Lathe and Loft Tools to create complex custom surfaces.

We continue our series spanning go-cart modelling project. And we conclude with a quick look at Splines use in animation. This DVD is aimed at a user who is new to modelling in 3dsmax. Chapter Bezier Curves - Fundamentals 1 We continue with a look at the fundamental concepts behind their implementation in 3dsmax via Bezier Splines. We look at this issue here. Chris runs through how to edit Splines here and gives some tips and tricks.

But now we learn how we can convert those curves into 3D forms. The first method we look at is the relatively simple, yet very useful Extrude Modifier. Chapter Go-Cart Modelling - Steering Column Now we have a grasp of the Spline based tools, we make a start on modelling some go-cart model elements using a combination of them. Chapter Go-Cart Modelling - Steering Wheel We continue modelling by creating the carts steering wheel and other elements.

Chapter Curves In Animation And we conclude with a brief look at how Splines can also be used for animation in a number of ways. In this DVD we conclude our modelling fundamental series by tackling the subject of sub-division surface modelling. Chris will introduce you to the philosophy and technology behind sub-d surfaces, how to create them within 3dsmax and how to effectively model using them.

We use those skills to model a number of elements on our go-cart model. We look at how we can optimize our sub-d workflow, and mix our techniques to more effectively model. And Chris concludes the DVD and series with an exploration of some best working practices and tips and tricks.

Here Chris explains. Chapter Controlling Curvature We now explore a key concept of Sub-Ds, in how you control the curvature of the surface via the proximity of it control points. Chapter How To Create We know what they are, and how to control their form. But how do we create these surfaces in the first place? Chapter The MeshSmooth Modifier We take an in-depth look here at how the most comprehensive smoothing system works.

We make a start here by modelling its running boards using Sub-Ds. Chapter Optimized Smoothing The smoothing inherent in the Sub-D surface can bog down viewport performance if not handled with care. Here Chris show how to optimize this area. Chapter Procedural Modelling Procedural modelling is a workflow that effects all of the areas covered in this series.

Here Chris demonstrates what Proceduralism offers. In this DVD Dominic will take your through an advanced and structured approach to Sub-Division based creature modelling. He lays the foundation with a well planned and analyzed set of concept sketches that allow him to plan his models form from the outset.

From here he builds the model in three distinct stages, with each stage forming a solid foundation for the next. Finally he takes you through some adjustments steps that give his model that extra realism and to ensure it functions well within a production pipeline. This DVD is ideal for intermediate and above modellers with a firm understanding of the principles of Sub-Division modelling.

Its an invaluable learning resource for modellers working within any production discipline. CH Blocking The Basic Form Once the model is underway Dominic shows how to create the basic form of the model, a very important stage that lays the foundation for all that follows. CH Primary Detailing Lower Body In the nexy stage Dominic starts to apply the first level of modelling to the lower part of the body.

CH Final Touches Now that our model is almost complete, Dominic takes us through a number of procedures that he uses to both ensure its ease of use both others working within your team, and also to improve the models realism. Advanced Modelling 2 - Technical Modelling 1.

Chris will guide you through many aspects of a modelling project of this scale, including the importance of reference material, best practices, organisation techniques, creating your own simple MAXScripted tools, approaches for modelling many of the elements, and much more. This DVD is aimed at a user with a good working knowledge of spline and poly modelling, as both schools are combined on this DVD. This is an ideal resource for anyone who may be involved in technical modelling or who wishes to move into the field.

Chapter Defining Your Goals Just what is it that your model has to be used for, are there any special requirements? We look at these issues here. Chapter Reference Materials Reference material is key to a good technical model, we look at the reference types in this chapter.

Chapter Modelling The Cab Then the drivers cab. Chapter Modelling The Chassis And then the chassis. Chapter Modelling The Plough And then on to the Plough Pilot the element that fronts the train below the main boiler. Chris is an acknowledged master at rigging, both mechanical and creature based. In this chapter Chris rigs the Hudson J3a's pistons and other mechanisms so that the train can be animated with ease.

Check in here again soon for more news on this exciting series. Animation Fundamentals 1 - The Core Principles. This DVD forms part one of a two part series that will introduce you to the fundamentals of animation in 3dsmax. In this first DVD, Simon, our instructor, will focus on the core principles of animation.

He will teach you about such topics as timing and spacing, mass and weight, overlapping action, anticipation, follow-through and much more. This DVD sets the foundation for this series, and in DVD2 our focus will move on to character animation principles and skills necessary to bring a fully believable animated character to life. This DVD is aimed at a user that is comfortable in navigating in 3dsmax and who has an understanding of its core features and toolset. CH What Is Animation?

Simon starts with an introduction to what animation is, the phenomena behind it, the basic structure of how we will tackle our animation and so on. CH TBB - Refining the Animation We wrap up this tutorial by taking another sweep over the animation, refining the balls bouncing motion. At the close of this chapter, we have our first complete animation.

Simon runs us through those differences here. CH Animating a Tentacle - Overlapping Action Now, using Forward Kinematics we animate a simple bone chain, and we offset each bones rotation in time to create the effect of overlapping action. CH Floppy - Character and Animation Rig Now we have the principle of overlapping action under our belts, we will start a new pair of tutorials that will apply all we have learnt so far.

And the character rig we will use to control him. We lay down key poses for Floppy in our blocking stage of the animation. Here we are going to create a hop cycle. CH FJC - Refining and Finishing Off And once again we finish off our animation by running through it once more and refining elements of the motion here and there. Starting on the ground, Floppy hops into the air, bounces, arcs into the air and lands.

And when he lands and stops, he stops dead. So we start addressing these issues by adding a new principle here, Anticipation. Simon works out some issues here and there, and the result is our first full animation!! Animation Fundamentals 2 - Adding Character. The second part of our Animation Fundamentals series will build on the core animation techniques Simon taught you in the previous tutorial.

Here we look at the importance of analysing and understanding our characters before attempting to animate them. How good staging, contrasting poses, observing silhouettes and related techniques will help deliver your drama clearly to the viewer. Simon will show you how the pose-to-pose animation technique will allow you to quickly and effectively animate in a production environment. Simon completes the tutorial with a practical example of how to put all of these principles into effect in a real world example staring Floppy the alien.

This tutorial is aimed at a user that is comfortable in general 3dsmax and with the animation interface and general animation skills. It is highly recommended that you view DVD1 in this series, before viewing this tutorial.

How are they physically made up, one leg, two legs, a floating gas bag? And what makes them tick? Are they angelic but troubled, or a BBQ mephit? Here Simon looks at the importance of knowing your character before you move into animating them.

He now has more expressive eyes and a mouth. Simon runs through the new rigs features here. CH Eye Controls We continue our exploration of the new character rig with a look at its eye controls. CH Mouth Controls And we complete the new rig boot camp with a quick look at the mouth controls and how they are achieved using 3dsmax's morph target system.

CH Facial Animation Principles Much of a characters emotion and intent can be read in its face, and especially in the eyes. Simon runs you through the key points to consider here. So here Simon looks at the importance of body language and how it can convey emotion, even when a character is trying to hide it. It is preferred as it is a quick and transparent method, where you can easily show your ideas early in the production process.

Avoiding any possible wasted effort if an idea is not liked down the line. CH Break-down Poses Each key pose in the pose-to-pose technique can translate to one another in a myriad of ways. Often intermediate poses, know as break downs help inject more drama. Simon explores these here. Are they erect and proud, tired and bowed, or twisting to launch a punch.

Here Simon explores the importance of considering your characters line-of-action.

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Production of 3D art is an exciting medium, but the task of modeling requires intense attention to detail, so speed and efficiency are vital.

The saturdays headlines itunes m4a torrent To reveal it again, go to the top row of icons—the main toolbar— right-click, and you can enable it from the list of menus there. This is at the heart of getting objects looking correct. GI makes CG lighting much more like real world lighting and accounts for radiosity or the color bleeding that happens when no reflective surfaces still provide bounce, and bounce tinted to their diffuse color. A third-party photorealistic rendering system providing materials. It has modeling capabilities and a flexible architecture and can be used on the platform.
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Utorrent tracker status These creations are available under Creative Commons Attribution 3. You can widen it to show several columns by dragging on its edges. It is not limited to either television work or films. The resolution of a photon map is independent from the rest of the geometry. In most scenes, you will have certain objects you select often. And used FBX to go back and forth between the two. Every scene is saved with its own units of measurement.
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History of teapot in 3ds max torrent For instance, you can press the Select icon or press Q or you can right-click and choose Select from the Quad menu. As such it was not popular in VFX. The last one is interesting as ILM has a permanent site license of RenderMan, having been very involved from the earliest days and of course Pixar being a spin-off from Lucasfilm. Knowing that the software can direct its sampling efforts to where it will make the most difference, even in the Linear render — knowing it will be viewed in gamma 2. These models and 8 other ones not listed here and go here as light sources are available in the Furniture. A key feature of mental ray is the achievement of high performance through parallelism on both multiprocessor machines and across render farms. Capsule: Creates a cylinder with hemispherical caps.


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