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Grenada Men-at-Arms Lee Russell. Resistance Warfare Men-at-Arms. The Korean War Men-at-Arms. British Battle Insignia 1 Mike Chappell. Modern African Wars 1 : Rhodesia — Polish Armies 1 Richard Brzezinski. The British Army on Campaign 3 : — Conboy, Ken Bowra. The War in Laos Kenneth J.

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Chinese Warlord Armies Philip Jowett. Armies of the Irish Rebellion Stuart Reid. Note the ornate decoration of the sword hilt, in silver and black niello. In the Crown lands, cavalry consisted of 16 banners of hussars which in the Polish context meant heavy cavalry, formerly armoured ; 76 banners of pancerni medium cavalry ; 14 banners of light cavalry, and 7 regiments of dragoons. This effectively brought the Insurrection to a close, since no other single person could unite the different factions within the insurgent government or army.

The cuffs and lapels were approximately 5cm 1. The waistcoat was white or buff, with coloured trim along the edges and pockets. Soldiers wore red or black stocks cravats. Knee-breeches were white, with black thigh-length cloth gaiters. Headgear were black tricorne hats with white trim for musketeers, and brass-plated bearskin or mitre caps for grenadiers and fusiliers.

They also wore baggy trousers and a long kaftan coat, with the front corners tucked up into the belt to free the legs. In the cavalry, hussar companies wore a low, four-cornered cap that came to be known as the konfederatka; this had a crown rising from a bottom band of fleece or fur, and sported white feathers. The upper garment was a crimson kontusz with blue facings a thigh-length coat, usually with the sleeves split for wearing thrown back behind the shoulders. This was worn over a long blue zupan a long-sleeved robe, buttoned at the front, originally ankle-length but now sometimes seen shortened to the knee.

Weapons were a lance, sabre and firearms, and some still wore breastplates. The mitre cap has a gilt, cut-out brass plate backed with red cloth. The red coat is faced with medium or sky blue now much faded ; both it and the blue waistcoat have gold buttons and lace. Note the large gorget, and the large decorative pocket flaps on the waistcoat.

During the period of the Partitions the Line cavalry retained this structure, with differentiating uniform features. A katanka a short-sleeved decorative jacket was worn over a long zupan in a contrasting colour.

These troops also carried a sabre, a musket, and a light lance about 1. Dragoons wore short infantry coats in green with regimental facing colours on the collars, lapels and cuffs; boots were worn for mounted duty and gaiters for dismounted. They were armed with a sword, pistols and a musketoon.

Artillerymen of both nations wore green jackets with black facings. The gun carriages and other equipment were painted red — the traditional Saxon colour, held over from the former monarchy — with black metal fittings. For most of the Bar Confederation War artillery pieces were leftovers at least 50 years old. All officers wore a sash in mixed red and silver, with fringed ends tied on the right side.

Company officers wore their shoulder straps epaulettes on the left shoulder, regimental senior staff and general officers on both shoulders. Non-commissioned officers were distinguished by lace around the collar, cuffs and shoulder straps, and trumpeters by lace on the collars, cuffs and shoulders. The Bar Confederation, —72 This had no central organization; the rebels were a miscellany of small local groups, widely dispersed and each with its own organization and goals.

Because most participants had some military experience they were generally organized in companies each under a captain, modelled on the Crown or Duchy forces with which they were familiar. They lacked a co-ordinated strategy, but initially mounted hit-and-run cavalry attacks backed up by some infantry.

As foreign advisors arrived to assist their cause they began to abandon free-ranging mobile warfare in favour of capturing towns to act as bases. Making proper use of artillery required the advice of technical experts, and garrisoning towns demanded greater numbers of infantry. There was some attempt to uniform the cavalry in the traditional kontusz and zupan with an elongated konfederatka, but in practice their dress quickly degenerated into anything that was available see Plate A.

Infantry were often dressed in everyday peasant clothing, sometimes sporting the family distinctions of the noblemen who raised them. Eventually, as support arrived first from Prussia and later from Austria, some Confederate infantry were uniformed in the Western manner, including white military coats.

This costume style would have been indistinguishable from that of any other European army of the period; the collar lace was even copied from the Prussian army. As a general in , it was he who set the Kosciuszko Insurrection in motion when he refused to disband his 1st National Cavalry Brigade.

His march on Krakow forced Kosciuszko to initiate the rebellion that today bears his name. Wolyn Volhynia, historically straddling the Ukrainian border; this lay between the eastern central area of Masovia, centred on Warsaw, and the Bug river to its south-east. Podlaskie north-east, centred on Drohiczyn. Lithuania formed the single administrative district of Wilno modern Vilnius.

By the Line cavalry was organized into National Cavalry brigades. The cavalryman was equipped with a pair of pistols, a sword, a lance or a short musket — dragoons also had a bayonet. During this period an artillery train was organized under army rather than civilian control. The artillery was gradually re-equipped with cannon at first based on Austrian designs, but by it was beginning to follow French models. The Crown began to cast artillery for the first time in 80 years, and by the end of the foundries had produced guns in various calibres, in addition to 58 privately-cast regimental guns.

The standard calibres were 3-, 6-, 8-, and pounders; there were also 6in and 8in howitzers, and a variety of mortars. Crown troops had white-metal buttons and Duchy troops brass. Under the kontusz they wore a long white zupan. A drawing of National Cavalry uniforms based on the ordinances shows the lance pennant for Crown troops as crimson with a white Maltese cross centred towards the shaft, and Duchy brigades with pennants halved in blue over the facing colour.

An ordinance of 9 February changed the uniform style again. The National Cavalry towarzycz had a konfederatka with a crimson crown, a white band above the black lambswool bottom edging-band, and a white plume. The jacket was a dark blue kontusz with crimson facings, over a white waistcoat; some officers still wore a white zupan. The trousers were crimson with a blue sidestripe extending into a band around the bottom. Troopers wore crimson belts. The shoulder cords, epaulettes and belt plates were silver.

To differentiate the classes, the potczowy trooper wore both jacket and trousers in blue, with collar, cuffs, facings, trouser sidestripe and bottom band in crimson. Their cap was either a black mirliton-style giwer, a quilted cap or a fur kolpak busby. They differ in their headgear and details of their uniforms.

Both wear crimson caps; a dark blue katanka over-jacket trimmed and faced crimson, over a white long-sleeved waistcoat zupanik with pointed crimson cuffs; and dark blue riding trousers with scalloped crimson stripes and pale leather reinforcements. His lance pennant is blue over crimson. This transitional style of uniform was typical for Advance Guard and other light cavalry between the s and As part of the new regulations instituted in , the kontusz was shortened for all ranks into the kurtka jacket that would become traditional for lancers in many armies; this was sometimes worn over a similarly shortened zupanik waistcoat.

According to the ordinance of 27 February , the Advance Guard units — employed, as their name implies, for scouting duties — had a different colour scheme: the towarzycz wore a green kurtka with regimentally-coloured facings, and green trousers.

The cap was a crimson konfederatka with a white band above black lambswool edging, and white cords and plume. The officers of the National Cavalry wore a blue, thigh-length, buttoned-across litewka jacket with crimson cuffs, collar and shoulder strap, crimson trousers with a yellow sidestripe, and silver and crimson belts.

The trumpeters wore a scarlet kurtka with collar and lapels in blue, silver lace on the collar and cuffs, and yellow lace along the rear sleeve and body seams. Their scarlet trousers had white sidestripes; their mirliton had a blue-over-white plume, and white cords terminating in blue tassels.

The saddle cloth was dark blue with the outer edge white or silver with a fringe, then reading inwards a red line, white, red and white. The dragoon regiments were eventually converted into either infantry or Advance Guard cavalry units. Some retained their facing colours on infantry uniforms, and were inserted into the regimental seniority sequence; the Advance Guard units had blue or green jackets.

In the s infantry uniforms retained their style and colours, with Crown troops in red coats and Duchy troops in blue. However, the s were a decade of reforms; by the end of all infantry of both nations had adopted a standard uniform of a kurtka jacket and trousers in dark blue, with regimental distinctions at collar, cuffs, lapels, turnbacks, and trouser sidestripes.

Artillery continued to be clothed in infantry style, with green jackets faced in black. The reforms of changed the colour of all equipment from Saxon red to green, with black iron fittings. However, in there were still gun carriages in Czestochowa that were painted red, and the ordered change was not completed until the end of the period. The royal cypher was painted on artillery equipment in white, along with the unit number. Apart from its technical content, it stressed service to the nation, rather than to a commander or local leaders.

The general is shown dressed according to the reforms, but his troopers in the background are still in their pre uniforms. The cloak is white, but the cape is in the colours of the uniform — crimson, collared and edged in blue. The flag is of double-backed crimson silk damask, 55cm in the hoist and 60cm in the fly By National Cavalry brigades consisted of 12 companies in the Crown and 16 in the Duchy armies; the brigades had a staff of 19 and 21 respectively, and companies had troopers.

Advance Guard regiments had a staff of 19, and 10 Crown and 8 Duchy companies, each of troopers. The commander was the colonel, followed by a lieutenant-colonel, a major, and then the structure as in the cavalry brigades. In the Lithuanian sharpshooter companies were amalgamated into a Rifle Corps with four battalions, each of four companies, each company with a nominal strength of soldiers.

By at least one Crown regiment the 19th was designated as a rifle unit. Not all sharpshooters actually received rifled weapons. The artillery was commanded by a major-general of artillery, seconded by a regimental colonel and lieutenant-colonel. Operationally, the artillery was dispersed by companies and batteries, usually being based in fortresses until needed in the field. The hierarchy in these operational units was a major in command, captain, quartermaster, adjutant, lieutenant, second lieutenant, artificer, staff quartermaster NCO, commissary, quartermaster NCO, master gunner, and gunner.

Each infantry regiment had a 4-gun artillery battery attached to it, and soldiers were designated from the ranks of the regiment to serve these 2- or 3-pounder regimental guns. By artillery batteries had 6- or pounder guns and 6in howitzers. The barrels were made of iron or bronze, but all carriages had iron furniture. The guns were usually towed behind wagons; by May there was a preliminary organization of some horse artillery units after the Prussian model.

Gembarzewski shows horse artillery gunners from the Horse Guards regiment in Uniforms The ordinance of March was the final set of uniform regulations issued to the army that would fight the Russians in and In the cavalry the height of the konfederatka was lowered.

He wears the distinguishing headgear of his rank, a felt mirliton or giwer, dressed with white cords and a white-over-black plume. These troopers served in the rear ranks and carried swords and firearms, but usually not lances; note the carbine or short musket with a visible slinging-rail.

The kurtka was dark blue with crimson distinctions, the trousers crimson with a blue stripe. In the Advance Guard, the pocztowy wore the same mirliton but with a white-over-black plume, while the towarzycz wore the konfederatka. The kurtkas in these regiments were either green or blue; collar and cuffs were black, lapels were crimson, and buttons, lace and epaulettes were gold.

The trousers were crimson with black stripes. Their kurtka was red with blue distinctions, their trousers blue with a red stripe, but otherwise their uniform was in the new regulation style. The Lithuanian Guard cavalry seem to have retained the dragoon-style bicorne hat, but with the revised uniform. In a shako casquet was introduced for the Crown infantry units. This incorporated elements of design from similar caps worn in the Austrian, Prussian and Russian armies, but was uniquely Polish in its final form.

It was of black felt with leather details, with a flat top, a separate front flap with a white metal plate featuring a Polish eagle, an upright plume on the left side, and a black moose-hair or fur crest or roach on a wire former; this rose from low on the back and up over the top to the front flap. Prior to , and after , Polish infantry regiments included a grenadier component, but regulations from that era seem silent on this subject.

It would be logical that they were still an organic part of the regiment, and were distinguished by a sideways shako crest like Prussian and Russian grenadiers during this period. In the iconography some troops within units are shown with sideways crests in white, but these are unexplained. In this drawing of the artist Michal Stachowicz has wrongly depicted the Polish casquets as if they were Austrian shakos, and the frontal turnbacks on the kurtka jacket are too small.

The dark blue jacket exemplifies the typical cut of the Line infantry kurtka introduced in — This example has yellow regimental facings; the shoulder straps and triangular frontal skirt turnbacks might be either solid facing colour, or — as here — dark blue edged with facing colour. Surviving examples of the casquet are about This supports a brass or pewter plate with a Polish eagle device stamped into or applied to it, sometimes within a milled edging.

A crest or roach of dark moose- or horsehair on a wire former passes from back to front, and a vertical black plume tipped with either white or red was fixed to the left side. By all Crown and Duchy Line infantry were wearing blue kurtkas and trousers, the latter being white linen in summer.

The uniform facings for this regiment were orange. This was of black felt, with a domed top and a black bearskin crest from halfway up the back to the top. A plate featuring the Polish eagle or the Lithuanian armoured horseman was fixed to the front above a brass band.

The artillery, engineers and pontoneers continued to wear green kurtkas with black facings and trim, and the headgear of their respective army. This listing is not comprehensive, but represents those units that we have identified with colonels-in-chief and uniform distinctions applicable to the reign of Stanislaw II August. For colonels-in-chief at key dates, see also the tables in this book. Even though some units were incorporated into the Russian army under the Second Partition, the Polish command tried to raise new troops to fill those regimental numbers in the Line, and these would have been uniformed like their predecessors.

This explains some apparent contradictions in the summaries of regimental participation in engagements during The regiment was stationed in Warsaw and Krakow; it saw active service from the Bar Confederation War until the end of the Warsaw Insurrection, and in fought in the battles at Slonima, Krupczyce, Brzesc and Maciejowice.

In —89 the Crown Guard Dragoons were dressed like their Saxon forebears, in tricorne hat, buff-coloured coat and breeches, and high-topped black boots. They had red turnbacks, and white silver lace trim; for full dress they wore a red tabard in imitation of a cuirass. The saddle cloth was crimson with silver edges and a silver Polish eagle in the rear corners. From to the unit adopted red jackets with blue facings and gold buttons. Some had a cloth turban around the base, and a horsehair mane hanging from the raised comb.

The saddle cloth was crimson with triple gold lace edging, and a crowned royal cypher in silver angled in the rear corners. LEFT Crown Guard Dragoons officer and soldier, , when this unit was still uniformed like the Saxon Guards in buff jackets and trousers with red facings, complete with a red parade tabard resembling a faux breastplate. It shows a red cap with black fur band, white cockade and plume; blue coat faced and lined red, with silver epaulettes, over a long white coat laced down the front and around the bottom edges; and yellow boots.

This illustrates a transitional stage in the development of the uniform, between the older-style zupan and the new jacket. B Motowilowka, Boruszkowce, Zielence, Dubienka Transferred into Russian army as Dniepiski Bde. Transferred into Russian army as Dniestrzanski Bde. S Szarogrod —92 , Zwinogrod B Zaslawa, Wiszniopola, Boruszkowce, Zielence The headgear is a black kolpak with a red bag and white feather, and the lance pennant is red-over-white. A trumpeter has a red jacket with light blue collar, cuffs and turnbacks, and light blue trousers with a white sidestripe; he wears a black mirliton with white cords.

The horse blanket is shown as red with light blue edging. S Cudnow, Powolocz, Warsaw. S Mohylow, Chwasta, Czeczelnik. S Luck, Chmielnik, Kowel In the trumpeters wore a red giwer with a white plume tipped red; white jackets with blue facings edged gold, and gold and red shoulder straps edged gold; trousers were red with a white sidestripe. The saddle cloth was dark blue, edged in gold with a red central stripe; the pistol holsters was edged in gold only.

S Warta, Czehryn In , trumpeters had a white jacket with black distinctions, red trousers with a yellow sidestripe, a black mirliton with a white plume tipped red, and a red over-sash edged in gold. The saddle cloth was blue, with white and red edging separated by a gold line. S Tetyow, Berszadie , Czeczelnik , Wisniowiec. In the unit wore a black lambswool cap with a red bag, a black kontusz trimmed with white piping, and black trousers with a yellow sidestripe piped each side with white.

Under the kontusz was a red zupan, also piped in white along the pointed cuffs and down-turned collar. They wore a crimson sash, and black boots. The lance had no pennant. A brown camelhair burqa was worn over the shoulders in bad weather.

They wore a red kuczma with black lambswool edging. The black kontusz and trousers were piped white, the yellow trouser sidestripe being piped white each side. Under the kontusz they wore a red zupan, piped white along the pointed cuffs and down-turned collar. Their sash was crimson, their boots black, and they had no lance pennant. S Warsaw, Lomazy , Korsun , Kozienice S Krakow, Sandomierz, Labun , Cudnow S Pomorskie , Poznan , Lowicz S Wielkopolska, Lowicz S Miedzyrzec , Koscian B Ukraine rebellions —69 , Bar civil war.

On the reverse was a crimson circle in four quadrants separated by silver. The Polish eagle, first and third, was gold; the Lithuanian armoured rider, second and fourth, was in colours. The laurel leaves were green, the crown gold, and the ribbons blue and white. The brass spearhead finial measured 26cm In the 18th century Jews were exempt from conscription into the Commonwealth forces, but a Jewish merchant named Joseph Aronowicz approached Kosciuszko to authorize this unit.

Raised in Sept—Oct under Col Berek Joselewicz, it was designated a dragoon unit, and eventually reached a strength of B Maciejowicie, and Praga, where most of the troopers were killed. Volunteer Cavalry of One unit of volunteer horse shown by Norbin wore a green dolman and trousers with black boots and belts. Facings and piping including a trouser stripe were red, and buttons brass; the black giwer had white cords and plume.

For peasant militia cavalry, see Plate G3. The belting was white. B War. S Kamieniec, Poznan, Krakow Joined Line infantry as 8th Regt; , its Chief Nikolaj Czapski had it advanced to 3rd, which place it retained in and B War; , two battalions plus riflemen fought at Raclawice. In —94 drummers had blue jackets with white chevron lace on sleeves, and a helmet with a red crest. Soldiers had red facings and trouser sidestripes, and white leather equipment; officers had silver epaulettes.

The sharpshooters wore black broad-brimmed hats with a green plume, with regulation jacket and trousers and black leather equipment. Stachowicz shows riflemen in blue rather than green uniforms, with yellow sidestripes, black leatherwork and white hat plume.

Fought in War, and at Szczekociny The nominal Chief was the General of Artillery of the Crown, since its mission was to guard the artillery. In , Fusilier Regt of Crown Artillery retitled Fusilier Battalion; , listed as 5th Regt of Fusiliers; , renumbered 6th in the Line; , reverted to original name; , reverted to 5th.

Sharpshooters wore light green uniform with black distinctions, but white leatherwork; black round hats, black half-boots. Originally the Guard Lanowy Gwardia Lanowy when numbered 6th in the Line, it was briefly the 9th , and 7th , reverting to 6th in Took part in War and Insurrection. Originally numbered 7th; then 8th —92 ; then 9th; and reverted to 7th in Insurrection.

S Kalisz, Poznan , Lowicz S Kamieniec Podolski. It is possible that two flags were carried, one crimson and the other white, as in the Guards. Known examples are cm in the hoist by cm in the fly The central silver eagle was 56cm high by 60cm wide 22 x On the obverse was the crowned, wreathed cypher as on the Guards flag, but 59cm high The black-painted shaft measured Note the somewhat shabby casquet shako, here without a back-to-front crest, and with both the peak and a rear flap turned upwards.

He has a comfortable cap and an overcoat, and has apparently been issued regulation crossbelt equipment. On his back he seems to carry a bundled and tied blanket as a knapsack. The officer is shown with a black stock, the soldier with a red one. The coats are sky blue, faced red and lined white. Hungarian companies were raised by particular commanders, since at that time they evoked an elite image — comparable to that of Zouaves in the mid 19th century. S Lowicz —92 , Warsaw, Poznan. B War; one battalion fought at Raclawice Last colonel-in-chief was Ignacy Dzialynski, and unit later known by his name.

S Rydzyna, Warsaw , Gniezno , Krakow B War; Maciejowice The sharpshooters wore green uniform with yellow facings, and round hat with green plume. S Kozmin, Kamieniec , Labun , Tulczyn According to Nafziger, this was one of a number of former Polish regiments that were disbanded in because of the Kosciuszko Insurrection. After , taken onto the army rolls as 13th Line; , briefly renumbered 14th. S Dubno. B War and Insurrection. S Tulczyn. When ordered transferred to Russia following Second Partition, the soldiers deserted to Turkish territory.

S Warsaw. Disbanded, but re-formed before Insurrection around cadre from Foot Guard Regt. In its rifle element wore black round hats with green plume, green uniform with red distinctions, and black leatherwork. B Zegrze, Maciejowice, Praga. S Warsaw; one battalion served in Nadnarwianski Division.

B Marymont, Krupczyce, Brzesc. B against Prussians at Koln, Slosarza, Ostroleka. Regiment of Lublin Grenadiers F May Regiment of Sandomierz Grenadiers F April S wherever the Grand Hetman had his headquarters. B Bar civil war. For uniform c. Hungarian Company of the Grand Hetman of the Crown The company existed from to , then again in In they wore a light blue braided dolman with gold lace and yellow cuffs red for officers. The tight Hungarian breeches were light blue, and officers had gold Hungarian knots embroidered on the thighs.

All ranks wore a red sash. In —89 a new uniform was worn. Hungarian Company of the Field Hetman of the Crown This also existed from to , and again in B Warsaw uprising See illustration opposite. Their crimson standard bears a rogatywka cap above a cornsheaf and leafy branches, set against a crossed pike and scythe. In the long run the fierceness of their attacks could not prevail against cannon and massed muskets, but their self-sacrificing courage epitomized for Poles the romantic notion of rebellion against foreign tyranny for the next years and more.

Volunteers of Many of these small operational units wore either a broad-brimmed round hat, sometimes with the left brim pinned up, or a black giwer with a white plume. One sketch by Norblin shows a grey three-quarter-length overcoat lined with white. The sukmana peasant overcoat was usually white but sometimes brown or blue see Plate G.

The Pontoneer Battalion of the technical corps was originally formed from the Crown Militia. This idealized costume came to represent the image of patriotic rebellion in Poland from through In the corps was split into two brigades — Warsaw and Kamieniecz — each of three companies, each company having soldiers. Between and the black tricornes were trimmed with gold lace, white cockades and white plumes.

Uniforms were green with black facings see tables , worn with black half-boots. Long green watchcoats had yellow lace edging the cuffs and collar. In officers had a tall black konfederatka with a gold band and white plume. The headgear was the infantry shako with a transverse white crest. Some sources show gunners in white trousers with boots, and a round black hat with a red plume.

In they organized a company of pioneers. Between and the rank of conductor had gold lace on the collar, cuffs and lapels. Black round hats had gold lace and white cockades, and black boots were worn. Officers had gold epaulettes. In —94 the corps included sappers, pictured with an infantry shako with brass plate and white plume. Officers wore a dark green konfederatka with a gold above a white band, white cords and white plume. Until the officers were appointed by the war commission, and from by the king.

Note that the coat lapels are worn buttoned across. In there is a note of gold epaulettes, and a black side-to-side bicorne with gold lace and white plume.

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Lya un pellizco de tu voz descargar utorrent en Litewskiego S Grodno. A2: Officer, Wielkopolska, Confederate officers were often recognized leaders of a clan or group that could be amalgamated with others into larger formations to take the field against Russian and royal troops. In the s infantry uniforms retained their style and colours, with Crown troops in red coats and Duchy troops in blue. His other distinctions of rank are double gold lace stripes on his collar and cuffs. This officer from Great Poland wears an approximation of the uniform of pancerni medium cavalry: a dark blue jacket faced red, worn over a long red zupan, with silver buttons. The hierarchy in these operational units was a major in command, captain, quartermaster, adjutant, lieutenant, continue reading lieutenant, artificer, staff quartermaster NCO, commissary, quartermaster NCO, master gunner, and gunner.
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Osprey men at arms download book torrent Until the officers were appointed by the war commission, and from by the king. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. Please support our continuing book publishing programme by using this e-book responsibly. Divisions Men-at-Arms Gordon Williamson. Under the kontusz they wore a long white zupan. The dragoon regiments were eventually converted into either infantry or Advance Guard cavalry units. Scythians B.
Guerreiros do amanha download legendado torrent Note the very broad leather belly-band trzosand the grey blanket-roll. The uniform of this minor nobleman is based on items in the National Army Museum, particularly a white jacket in the kurtka style, faced with crimson. The pouch belt, echoing the silver and crimson of the waist sash, supports a pouch with a gilt cover behind the back. Officers wore the shorter konfederatka, and some of them still wore breastplates. B Praga Purges and massive deportations of Polish patriots follow Russian occupation.

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