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The plan and scope of this book obviously differentiate it from earlier studies on Middle English romance. Billings's Guide to the Middle English Metrical Romances, , , the plan of which was in part suggested by Korting's Grundriss der Geschichte der engl. Literatur 3rd ed. The fact, however, that he was surveying the whole of Middle English literature naturally limited his discussion of each romance to the briefest possible statement. Especially is this true of his reference to its sources and history, the two as- pects which are chiefly developed here.

Between his book and this there is a certain necessary duplication of information concerning the manuscripts, dates, and dialects, of the Middle English texts, but in each case the work is of wholly independent character. In the present instance all this material was pre- sented as a doctoral dissertation to the University of Chicago in 19 1 6, shortly before the publication of the Manual.

Since then the text has been amplified, as has the whole bibliography, by the inclusion of references extending through January, A word must be said concerning a departure here in biblio- graphical method, the wisdom of which remains to be proved. In general the bibliographies appended to each romance have been confined to studies published since The amazing volume and progress of investigations in this field is thus made plain, and the overweighting of these lists with much that is now discredited, is avoided.

On the other hand, it is hoped that no earlier study of enduring worth has been neglected, for to such works full reference is made in the course of the appro- priate discussion or in supplementary bibliographical lists. In these discussions a citation with the author's name and page reference only, indicates a work published since for which complete information is given in the final, alphabetically ar- ranged bibliography at the end of each section. Works of general reference, cited by the author's name and a brief title, are fully described in the Table of Abbreviations.

My own go most warmly to the librarians of the British Museum, of Harvard University, of Wellesley, and of the University of Chicago, who courteously facilitated my work; to Professor Manly and to Professor Nitze of the University of Chicago who gave valuable counsel on my dissertation; to my colleagues, Professor Martha Hale Shackford and Miss Anne K.

Tuell; and to my friend and comrade, Gertrude Schoepperle Loomis, who followed this study through all but its latest stages. To the memory of her who was as distinguished an Arthurian scholar as she was keen a lover of all romance, the book is now dedicated. In conclusion I wish to express my grateful appreciation for the honor of having this volume included in the Wellesley College Semi-Centennial Series.

Laura A. The mediaeval mind was not often free from some preoccupation with spiritual destiny. The problem of salvation was immediate and terrible, and the nature of extremest sin and extremest virtue was frequently a subject for frightened speculation. Out of such meditations, which had in them much that was akin to Eastern habits of thought, grew the legend of the Man Tried by Fate. Its hero was Job-like; he was suddenly bereft of home and wealth and family, but he lived with uncomplaining patience until he was at last re- possessed of all that he had lost.

The theme made an obvious appeal to the pious and to the fatalistic, and its development almost inevitably suggested romantic possibilities. Gerould pp. They include the long twelfth-century French romance Guillaume d'Angleterre ed. Alterthum, 11, ff. Hubert Simrock, Deut. Sagen, p. In comparison with many of these versions Isumbras occupies a modest place. It contains lines, written in the twelve-line tail-rime stanza and in well-worn minstrel phrases. Schleich p. It survives in one late fourteenth-century manuscript, that of Caius Col- lege, in five manuscripts of the fifteenth and one of the six- teenth century, as well as in William Copland's undated edition and two fragmentary prints.

Though the condensation of the story emphasizes some " pre- posterous " elements in the original ecclesiastical romance, and though the humble minstrel author of Isumbras makes no pre- tenses at originality of diction, the poem is not without redeem- ing touches. There is occasionally a blunt realism about it. Thus we are told, after the hero's troubles begin, of the dreary " hirdemen " who accost Isumbras with the news that there is not left " a stotte unto youre plowghe " ; we hear that the wretched family of the once proud nobleman suffer in the wood where they see nothing that " come of corn " but only, on " the holtes hare," " the floures of the thorns.

With typical English delight in physical prowess the poet describes how Isumbras can put the stone and how, when some jesters at court, thinking him only a poor palmer, mount him on " ane crokede stede " and send him to a tournament, he does so mightily that the queen laughs out, " My palmere es styffe enoghe, — he is worthi to fede! It is with the earliest western literary version, i.

Eustache, that the study of origins must begin. Placidus, according to the story, is a Roman general who in the time of Trajan is converted by the sight of a crucifix which appears between the horns of a stag which he is hunting. He is told by the stag that he must be tried by sufferings.

Mis- fortunes immediately overtake him; he loses his servants and cattle through pestilence, and his wife and children through robbery, sailors taking his wife and wild animals his children. For fifteen years he works as a laborer and then again becomes a commander and is served by his own two sons who are ig- norant of their parentage. Their mother, happening to lodge the two boys, overhears their talk ; she recognizes them and the three return to Rome where they are reunited to Placidus, or Eustathius, according to the name he receives at baptism.

Later, under Hadrian, the entire family suffers martyrdom. In this story Delehaye p. Though Eustache has been con- sidered a Roman saint, there seems no historical basis even for the concluding " passion," and Delehaye p. Meyer contended that the oldest version of this legend is the Latin text printed by him from manuscripts dating from the ninth century. He believed , p. This view was in flat contradiction to the one held by Gerould, Monteverdi, and Bousset, who thought that the original Eastern story of the Man Tried by Fate was translated into Greek, was known to John of Damascus in the eighth cen- tury as the legend of St.

Eustache, and was translated from Greek into Latin. Nor did they consider the story which may well have been the kernel of the saint legend, the tale of the future Buddha who appeared in the form of a golden stag to a king over-fond of hunting Garbe, pp.

Bousset's recent studies of the second part of the legend, the " Wiedererkennungs Marchen," strengthen previous arguments for its Oriental origin. Whatever its earlier history, by the tenth century the legend of St. Eustache was well known in western Europe. The Latin versions were translated into most of the vernacular languages. Stage, 11, 1 Cf. Jataka xn of the collection in Pali of the stories of the former exist- ences of Buddha trans.

Cambridge, Three scenes from this conversion story were represented on the great stiipa of Bharhut in India as early as B. The citation of this story does away with the difficulty noted by Gerould p. In later times it was connected with SS. Hubert, Julian, Felix of Valois and others Garbe, pp. Phil, xxxvn, ff. Delehaye pp. But his explanation of them as unrelated folk-tales is not convincing.

Gerould, p. Mon- teverdi, Studi Med. Eustache, and App. Ill for some account of the legend in art. Fisher, , p. In Rom. The French poem of verses in quatrains printed by Ott Bibl. Paris, MS. With such widespread diffusion both in England and on the Continent as the extant texts reveal, it is not surprising that the legend became the source of many romances, or at least a dominating influence upon them.

In the case of the Spanish romance, El Cavallero Cifar, the dependence of the ro- mance on the legend is shown not only by the order and nature of identical incidents, but by direct reference to the legend itself Wagner, pp. The romances, like the Eastern tales, in general parallel only the second part of the Eustache legend, the story of the separation and reunion of the family.

In Isumbras the hero is pictured as " kynge of curtasye," rich and generous, but over-proud. To him divine warning comes through a bird, as it does also to the hero in the Gesta version and in the Breton ballad. The fact that these three versions are alike in having the Bird Warning, and also agree in many subsequent details, suggests some possible relationship between them Gerould, p. The Choice of Woe, of poverty and woe in youth or in age in Isumbras, eternal sorrow or ten years of misery in Der Graf von Savoien, woe on earth or in the here- after in the Danish ballad, Sakarias, is found only in the later versions of the Eustache legend, such as that given by Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, x, cap.

Since this motif appears in at least seven inde- pendent tales in which the choice is presented to a woman by the Virgin, Gerould pp. Eustache legend. The most characteristic incidents linking the legend and the romances are those which tell of the separation of the family.

In Isumbras the knight carries one son across the water but when he returns a lion carries the first child away, a leopard the second, and ultimately a unicorn takes the third. In the Breton ballad also three children are mentioned; in other ver- sions there are but two. In these tales a young wife, after she has been driven from her home, gives birth to two children who are stolen from her by wild animals.

The vogue of this wildly improbable episode in all these European variants contrasts oddly with the more sober Oriental versions in which the children are usually separated from their parents by robbers, by shipwreck, or by the father's act of penance in deliberately giving them away. In every case the loss of the children seems an integral and natural part of the story of the Man or Woman Tried by Fate.

The Sale of the Wife Verkauf der Frau to which the unfortunate husband is forced by violence in Isumbras, Guillaume, and Graf is, perhaps, as Jordan p. Likewise the preservation of the heroine's chastity when she is in the hands of her captors is on the whole a distinctive Occidental trait Gerould, p. But it is not possible, as Monteverdi Studi Med.

Eustache has no trace of it. Gerould p. Helene alone seems clearly to have borrowed from the legend. In the others the use of the in- cident is due to the influence of the romances themselves. See Octavian here. Since these three versions have hardly anything more than this one trait in common, no argument can be based upon them. The suggested derivation of the Civile episode in Beves from the lost source of Cifar is altogether fictitious. Biedermann, Paris, Halle, 5 , one im- portant theme is that of a Lost Treasure.

In Isumbras it is the gold given to the hero for his wife by the heathens who had carried her off. Isumbras wraps it in his " mantill of skarlet rede," and this an eagle carries away. In the stories just listed, though the circumstances of the hero and heroine are differently motivated from those in the Man Tried by Fate, they are alike in telling of the separation of the lovers, and of their loss through a bird's theft of some object of value.

The adventures of the separated family are told with con- siderable variation. In Isumbras, after serving as a smith for seven years the hero fights victoriously in his self-made arms against the Saracens. After many wanderings he comes as a palmer to the land where his wife reigns as queen. Unrecog- nized, he serves humbly in her court until he is identified by the gold wrapped in his red mantle.

This Lost Treasure, in a fashion peculiar to such stories, he had recovered from a bird's nest. He is crowned king and later, in a great battle against the heathen, is aided by his sons who ride on animals like those which had stolen them.

The youths announce their parentage and the long severed family is at last reunited. In Isumbras, Guillaume, Wilhelm, Gute Frau, Graf, and Sakarias, the heroine, when she is separated from her husband, suffers no hardship but through a Marriage in Name or by popular elec- tion speedily rises to great place. In this detail the romances differ notably from the St. Eustache legend in which the heroine's humble life of self-support suggests the influence of the legendary story of Helen, the mother of Constantine.

In the Gesta tale and the Breton ballad the wife serves as a beggar and a servant. It is a realistic detail in Isumbras that she is pictured as going into battle clad " in armour, als scho were a knyghte " 1. The Treasure serves as a Recognition Token in Isumbras, and various other tokens appear in the different versions; in Guil- laume, for instance, a horn and ring are mentioned.

In the Eustache legend the recognition is accomplished through the wife's overhearing her two sons tell how they were stolen by animals, and then through her going to Placidus, their com- manding general, to ask for help. Despite all the romantic and fabulous elements in Isumbras, its structural likeness to the legend of St.

Eustache remains apparent. In spirit too it keeps the insistent note of piety, of joy " Goddes werkkes for to wyrke. Zupitza, Eng. Lincoln Cathedral, ed. Halliwell, Thornton Romances, pp. Ellis, Kelmscott Press, ; 3 L, Cott. A 11, Brit. Ward, Cat. Halliwell, p. Kolbing, Eng. Stud, in, ; 7 G, Gray's Inn, Lond. Early Editions: 8 c, Copland, undated, repr. Utterson, 1, 77 ff. Percy Folio, ed. Hales and Furnivall, 1, ; Zupitza, Archiv. A critical edition was pub- lished by Zupitza and G.

Schleich in Palaestra xv, pp. Liter aturbl. Studies: Cf. Wells, Manual, p. Bousset, W. Gesellschaft zu Gottingen, Philol. Delehaye, H. Esposito, M. Florence, 1. Fisher, J. Eustache par Pierre de Beauvais. Garbe, R. The Monist, xxi, Chicago, 1. Trans, from Deutsche Rundschau, Gerould, G. Hilka, A. Jordan, L. Liidtke, W. Meyer, P.

Meyer, W. See Hilka. Monteverdi, A. Eustachio, Bergamo, 10 2 vols. Ogden, P. Baltimore, Ott, A. See Texts. Speyer, G. Hubertus en St. Delehaye, Le Museon, N. Wagner, C. Among the mediaeval stories of innocent women who suffer a succession of trials and misfortunes, the Crescentia story, to which the various versions of Florence of Rome be- long, is made distinctive by two traits: i in the absence of the heroine's husband it is always his own brother who first approaches her with offers of love Le conte de la femnie chaste convoitee par son beau-frere ; and 2 it is the lady's fame as a healer which ultimately brings together those who have wronged her and who then confess their crimes against her Wallenskold, 2, p.

The story enjoyed a popularity which makes difficult the classification or even the enumeration of the various versions. Of these more than one hundred, dating from the twelfth to the nineteenth century, have been listed by various scholars Stefanovic, p.

Karl p. Here only the most important groups of texts can be noted. The type name for the story comes from what is commonly believed to be the oldest European text, the story of Crescentia in the Old High German Kaiser chronik, v. Schroedef, This was written about 11 50, and other ver- sions in verse and prose of the same text appeared in the thir- teenth and fourteenth centuries.

The episode was incorporated in practically the same form as that in the Kaiserchronik in the Sachsische Weltchronik, ed. Weiland, Mon. In Wallenskold's opinion 1, p. The earliest text of the Miracle is a twelfth-century prose ac- count ed. Wallenskold, 1, p. Guglielma Stefanovic, pp. The anony- mous Miracle itself, according to Wallenskold's enumeration 1, pp. To these Hilka p. The Miracle was introduced into the Speculum Historiale, 54, Bk.

VII, cap. As an exem- plum the story was usually given under the heading Castitas. Recueil, , 11, in the famous Miracles de Notre Dame of which so many manuscripts survive Wallenskold, 1, p. Vienna, liii, ff. Mundarten, , 11, , a religious book of exempla which was translated into Dutch, Swedish, and Danish; in a fifteenth-century poem of Hans Rosenbliit of Nuremberg; in a " comedie," Die Unschuldig Keyserin von Rom of Hans Sachs, 1 ; and in a poem of the meistersinger of the sixteenth cen- tury, Albrecht Baumholtz Wallenskold, 1, pp.

In the fifteenth century the dramatization of this Istoria by Antonia Pulci gave a new im- petus to this particular form of the story Wallenskold, i, pp. The third group of stories includes the various redactions to which the heroine gives her name, Florence of Rome. Of a French chanson d'aventure of lines ed. Wallenskold, Paris, , composed in the first quarter 1 of the thirteenth century, there are extant two thirteenth-century manuscripts PM and a late thirteenth-century fragment L; cf.

Besides this there are four versions of approxi- mately the same type: an early fourteenth-century Dit de Flor- ence D in quatrains ed. Jubinal, Nouv. Recueil, 5 a long fifteenth-century version of alexandrine verses Q, ed. Wallenskold, Florence, , pp. Amador de los Rios, Historia critica, , v, of the late fourteenth or early fifteenth century.

The relations of these versions have been studied with varying results by Wenzel p. The last Flor. To this the English version often refers as the " boke " These dates serve to place the chanson d'aventure between and The earliest reference to the story of Florence is found in La Naissance de la Chevalier au Cygne ed.

Todd, PMLA. Wallenskold, p. The author even suggests that he had consulted more than one version of the story 1. A reference in 1. More convincing is the evidence that he was familiar with an- other Middle English poem, the King of Tars, which, like Flor- ence, sets forth the grief of a Christian princess who mourns when a heathen suitor attacks her father's land that so many men should die for her sake Siefkin, p. It is possible, however, that this passage in the King of Tars or its original " geste," was itself influenced by the French original of Florence.

The Middle English redactor of Florence was of a strongly religious cast of mind and he tells his story not for the sake of diversion, but for the picture it gives of Christian fortitude. The chastity of his heroine, for instance, is not saved by a magic brooch as in the French versions, 2 but simply by the heroine's prayer to the Virgin, who makes the persecutor forget his pas- sion. Similarly, prophetic dreams, weird portents, fantastic epi- sodes, such as the successive attacks of wild animals on the wicked brother-in-law, Miles, which are found in the eminently pious but far more romantic French texts, are omitted.

On the whole his restraint achieves a more readable result than the too long- winded chanson d'aventure. Three groups of versions of the Crescentia saga remain to be noted, two of them European, and one, Oriental. In the early fourteenth century, if not before, a condensed version of the story, derived from the same source as Florence of Rome, was incorporated into the Gesta Romanorum and from that time it appeared in the Continental, the Anglo-Latin, and Late Middle English redactions.

About 1 it was turned into English rime- royal verse by Hoccleve ed. Furnivall, , 1, pp. In the fifteenth century a Bavarian schoolmaster, Johannes Birck, introduced the story, again told at some length, into his chronicle of the Abbey of Kempten. He attributed the founding of the Abbey to Hildegard, reputed the second or third wife of Charle- magne, and made her the heroine of a story frequently resem- bling Crescentia's.

Its chronological relations are a matter of grave dispute. One Miles, had come to her aid; 2 that which relates her adventures after she had been separated from her husband by Miles. In attempting to make the story a chanson de geste, the French author has described great battles and terrific single combats; given much detail in regard to houses and armor; boldly contrasted his good and evil characters; and infused the whole with fervent piety in the manner of the literary type he imitates.

Barry, MLN. Church bells are first mentioned by Gregory of Tours. The first reference to their miraculous ringing comes in the Vita Bonifatii. By the middle of the tenth century the literary tradition seems to have been established, and in the eleventh century the motif passed from religious legend into the chansons de geste Barry.

Paris, Hist. Poetique de Charlemagne, 2d. Reiser, , 1, This view was opposed by Stefanovic, who argued pp. The Oriental versions of the story fall into three groups Wallenskold, 1, p. The first and earliest of those now extant is found in a fourteenth-century Persian collec- tion of tales called the Touti-Nameh German trans, by R. Schmidt, Stuttgart, which in part at least goes back to a very ancient Sanskrit original now imperfectly represented by the Soukasaptati or the Sixty-Six Tales of a Parrot.

A fifteenth- century Turkish version of the tale of the chaste Merhuma in the Touti-Nameh is extant G. Rosen, , 1, In the famous Arabian collection of the Thousand and One Nights, there are three versions of the story of the Chaste Wife, and in the Thousand and One Days 1 , of which the earliest known manuscript is a Turkish redaction written in , occurs the tale of the chaste Repsima.

In this highly romantic and supernatural fiction con- cerning a saintly heroine, there is little that seems of local or racial character. In general when attempting to discover the origin of the story, one must depend primarily on a considera- tion of the nine principal incidents in the different versions: 1 the wooing of the heroine by her brother-in-law ; 6 2 the accusation of adultery brought against her by him; 7 3 her 6 In the Florence of Rome versions two young nobles, dispossessed by their stepfather, come as soldiers of fortune to aid the Emperor of Rome against the attack of his daughter's barbarous suitor.

The brothers become rival suitors for the daughter and ultimately the younger brother Esmere wins the lady and thereby becomes Emperor of Rome. As Florence will be his wife in name only until he has destroyed her enemy, Esmere goes at once in pursuit of the routed suitor, leaving his wife in his brother's care.

The wicked Miles practises various stratagems to deceive her, once even attempting to pass off a mutilated dead body as Esmere's. For this deed she has Miles shut up in a tower from which, in her joyous anticipation of Esmere's return, she later releases him, thereby giving him the opportunity to bring her new suffering. There are four theories in regard to the original narrative embodying all or part of these episodes.

His hypothesis rested on an inade- quate classification of the extant versions, and a consequent confusion of our story with the type represented by the Danish ballad of Ravengaard og M entering No. The first part of his conclusion may, on this ground, be disregarded. In Mus- safia, 11 convinced despite the lateness of the extant Oriental texts, of their actual priority, set forth the theory that the story was of eastern origin, and that it was introduced into the west in the abbreviated form now found in the Kaiserchronik and in the Miracle group.

In this form the seventh and eighth episodes are omitted. Later, he thought, there was a second importation of the story from the East from which the complete versions were derived. This theory was in part discredited by Wallens- kold, although in general he believed in the Oriental origin of unsupported accusation, and incidents 3 and 4 follow directly.

In Florence the falsity of the accusation is known almost at once, but Miles gets the lady into his power by pretending that he has been sent as an escort to bring her to Esmere. After new attempts to force his love upon her he abandons her in a forest. Child, Ballads, u, 34 ff. Classe der Kais. He argued that since the European versions have an incident, the imprisonment of the brother-in-law in a tower, which is lacking in all the Eastern tales, it is improbable that in two successive western adaptations of the Eastern tale, the same invention should have been made.

This episode and the fact that the husband of the heroine is invariably in the western versions a person of exalted rank, an emperor or king, indicate that they had a common source which Wallenskold believed was an Oriental tale introduced into Europe about the end of the eleventh century. In his opinion this tale was represented by the longer western versions and the shorter forms were simpli- fications of it that were due to oral tradition.

Wallenskbld's theory was stoutly opposed by Stefanovic who returned to the idea of a Germanic origin, though on different grounds from those proposed by Grundtvig. He asserted, very much as Bedier did in connection with the fabliaux, the lateness of the extant Oriental texts, and the difficulty of finding actual evidence of their transmission to Europe.

To him the fact that both the longer European versions and the Oriental texts con- tained the episodes 7 and 8 of the Man Freed from the Gal- lows 12 and the Ship's Captain, suggested not a common Oriental source, such as Wallenskold conjectured, but rather the proba- bility that these episodes were added to a European original of the type represented by the Kaiserchronik, and that it was this expanded version which passed to the East.

This theory adheres at any rate to the chronology of the extant texts and offers a fairer interpretation of the relation of the Crescentia- Miracle versions than that suggested by Wallenskold Florence, The latter argued that the Crescentia story, in which St.

Peter rescues the heroine after she has been thrown into the Tiber, was in fact simply a variant of the true Miracle type in which it was the Virgin herself who saved the heroine and en- dowed her with healing power, or gave her a magic healing herb. Yet stories of such miracles were current long before the Mary- 12 Cf.

Kohler, Kleinere Schriften, 11, , who cited numerous proverbs showing how widespread was the popular belief that anyone who freed a criminal justly condemned to the gallows, thereby made an enemy. Stefanovic, p. In this episode and that of the Ship's Captain, he admitted the possi- bility in the Florence story of Oriental influence, but thought that influence improbable. Stef- anovic p. Genesius or by Christ. It is also important to notice in regard to the chronology of the Crescentia and the Kaiser chronik stories, that the Tower episode, already noted as a distinctive feature of the Western versions and appearing, of course, in the Kaiser chronik, could not have been an original element in the original Miracle version since it is lacking in several derivative texts.

This fact also favors the priority of the Crescentia tale. Stefanovic p. The many details in the versions of Florence which describe the building and somewhat fantastic appearance of the Tower, do not conceal that it was originally conceived, as in the Kaiser chronik, simply as a prison.

In further refutation of the Oriental hypothesis, Stefanovic P- pointed to some minor traits differentiating the two types. The punishment to which the heroine is subjected differs somewhat in each group: it is attempted assassination, drown- ing, burning, in the European tales ; stoning, burning or hanging in the Eastern. So also is the manner of her delivery different. In the oldest European texts she is saved by supernatural inter- vention ; in the Eastern tales she escapes by natural means.

The torture which the heroine's first cruel lover inflicts upon her when he hangs her up by the hair, is an incident found only in the western versions and is suggestive of the fate of the holy Juliana. These characteristic differences, like the details which are unique in the western versions, prove little in themselves, but when parallels can be drawn between them and the themes and incidents in European story which precede by two centuries or more the possibility of Oriental influence — granting that this did not become effective in fiction until the end of the eleventh century — the possibility of European origin becomes more convincing.

In Stefanovic's opinion the terrible severity of the old Germanic laws for the punishment of adultery brought into existence numerous folk-tales, which were made all the more dramatic by the innocence of the accused. He noted that three of the five groups into which the European versions of the story may be divided, the Gesta, the long French poem Florence, and the Miracle, make mention of Hungary.

In the first the heroine is a princess of Hungary; in the second her husband is a prince of that land, though by his marriage he becomes Emperor of Rome; and in the third he is a king of Hungary. These local references Karl explained as being due to the influence of the story of St. Eliza- beth d. After the death of her husband on his way to a Cru- sade, Elizabeth endured calumny and persecution; she was exiled from her home, and for some years devoted herself to the care of the sick.

After a life of signal piety, she was canonized in Before , however, the influence of her story is perceptible in the Miracle of Gautier de Coincy. In large out- line at least St. Elizabeth's life accords with the story told of Florence's persecutions, her saintliness, and healing powers. Whether the romantic story was influenced, as Karl p. Ritson, , , ; W. Vietor, Marburg, Edwardes, Summary, p. Karl, L. See here, Emare, note 2.

Ueber die mittelengl. Dichtung " Le Bone Florence. Marburg, Siefken, O. Das gediildige Weib, pp. Stefanovic, S. Teubert, S. Halle, Wallenskold, A. Etude de litterature Comparee. Acta Societatis Scien- tiarinm Fennicae, xxxiv, Helsingfors, Paris, Mitteilungen, pp.

Helsingfors, 2. Wenzel, R. Die Fassungen der Sage von Florence de Rome u. The romance of Emare is one of the many branches of that widespread " Constance Saga " of which twenty-three literary and more than forty popular versions have been listed. Accused in her husband's absence of bear- ing monstrous offspring, she is banished, usually through the machinations of her wicked mother-in-law. Letters are forged and the young wife, instead of being kindly treated, as her husband has commanded, is exposed in a forest or set adrift in a rudderless boat.

In the one case the Outcast Wife and her two sons are saved by a hermit; in the other, the mother and her one son drift across the sea and when they arrive at last in Rome, find refuge in the house of a noble senator or merchant Suchier, Beautnanoir, i, pp. In all versions the hero- ine is ultimately reunited with her husband and in some cases with her father also. To England belong three notable versions of this story. This Latin chronicle emanated from St.

Albans and may be ascribed to the abbacy, if not to the actual authorship of the learned, pious, and somewhat credulous John de Cella, 1 14 Rickert, 2, The Vita Offae 1 See note 8. Liter aturgesch. Rickert, "The OE. Offa Saga," Mod. The poem alludes to the exile of a wife, to her sorrow for her husband, to the treacherous kinsmen who have separated them, to her own life in what seems to be a forest cave. After the birth of her children and the lapse of many years, Offa goes to aid the vassal king of Northumbria against the Scots.

For Offa's message of victory his son-in-law substitutes a letter commanding that the queen and her children should be left to die in the woods. The hands and feet of the children are cut off but are later miracu- lously restored by a pious hermit. The mother and children stay with him until they are found by the despairing Offa. The hermit suggests that in gratitude Offa should erect an abbey by the hermitage, but this is not accomplished until the time of one of Offa's descendants, who at last begins the building of St.

From this prose text, in which the gentle heroine is called Constance, comes the generic name of the legend. Trivet's account is important in itself and as the source of both Gower's story in the Conjessio Amantis, Liber II, ff. Macaulay, Oxford, , and of Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale, 4 a beautiful version in which all the art of the poet is lavished on the tender pathos, the devoutness, and spiritual fortitude of the heroine's character. In Trivet's account and its derivatives, the Incestuous Father episode is omitted.

Constance, the daughter of Emperor Tiberius of Rome, leaves her maiden home in order to wed and convert a heathen Sultan. At the wedding feast there is a massacre of the Christian guests, a crime instigated by the first of the two incredibly similar and wicked mothers-in-law in the story. The young bride is set adrift on the sea. She reaches Northumbria 3 The first Offa, it is thought, reigned in Schleswig in the fourth century.

Allusions to him are found in Widsith, v. See F. Klaeber, Beowulf, N. Rickert, 2, pp. Chaucer," Anglia, xiv, 77 ff. At this point the type story begins. When Constance's child is born, her mother-in-law prepares a letter for Constance's husband in which the girl is accused of being a witch and of bearing evil offspring, and another letter, purporting to come from him, in which the exposure of the queen and her child is commanded. They are set adrift and come at last to Rome.

There the long separated family is at last reunited. Trivet's story is somewhat dull but edifying, and is of course written in conventional chronicle fashion with many pseudo-historic details. Both in material and style the text might easily be turned into an exemplum on the virtue of resig- nation to the will of God, or, with the addition of a martyrdom episode, into a saint legend.

What it became in romance is shown in the third version of the story that arose in England, namely, the romance of Emare, a poem of lines. This was written in the last half of the fourteenth century, or possibly as late as , since it is notably lacking in archaic forms Rickert, 1, p. Its popular style, its twelve-line, tail-rime metre, its familiar allusions to minstrels 1. The single extant manuscript of the poem was written between and ibid. The story curiously combines the motifs of the two earlier versions.

It begins with the episode of the Incestuous Father. This episode is practically identical with one in Florence of Rome. In the various ver- sions of this romance, it is the child of the heroine's protector who is killed. The episode is found in the mid-twelfth century Kaiserchronik and must have been borrowed from some subsequent version of the story by Trivet.

The accusation of an innocent person by the true assassin is a motif frequently found in popular tales Wallenskold, La Femme Chaste, p. In Manekbie the king has promised to wed no one save a woman like his dead wife; he is reluctant when his nobles wish to make him marry his daughter. In the Catalan tale, Historia del rey de Hungrie, the father loves the daughter because of the beauty of her white hands, and for this reason she cuts them off Suchier, Beaumanoir, 1, p.

Arrived in " Galys," she is kindly received by the royal steward, Sir Kadore, and is promptly wedded by the king. The episode of the cruel Mother-in-law and the two Forged Letters is the same as in Trivet, and similar also is the account of the heroine's second Exposure on the Sea, her arrival in Rome, and reunion with her husband.

Much in this version is made of Emare's beauty, which equalled that of her dead mother. The pseudo- historic details and the accusation that the heroine has mur- dered the child or wife of a protector are omitted, and the super- natural element is reduced to the two voyages in which the heroine is marvellously preserved. There are no references in Emare to any mutilation of the heroine, or to the heavenly vengeance on her murderous lover, such as occur in so many versions of Constance.

To a large extent the story has been rationalized and its earlier barbarity softened. Suchier Beaumanoir, i, xxv ff. Rickert 1, pp. Cox, Cinderella Catskin. Rickert, 2, p. In this last chronicle, the heroine, when she is assailed by a wicked suitor, pushes him overboard with her own hands. Chaucer's version, like Emare, minimizes these elements of horror. For folk versions see Suchier, Beaumanoir, 1, lviii-lxxii, forty-two tales; Rom.

See also Hudepohl, mentioned here under Amadas, note 2. Zubke, Roma- nisches Mus. I, Greifswald, ; a romance, La belle Uelhne de Constantinople? To Germany belong three ver- sions dating from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century: a German metrical romance, Mai und Beaflor c. Rickert, Emare, p. For a detailed analysis of the long fifteenth-century poetic version in monorimed laisses see Albert Leon, Une Pastorale Basque, Etude historique et critique, Paris, , pp.

Greifswald, ; W. Soderhjelm, " St. Martin et le roman de la belle Helene," Memoires de la Soc. Ruths, Die franz. Fassungen des Roman de la belle Helene, Diss. For reproductions of the illuminations of the prose romance by Jean Wauquelin see J. Suchier, Beaumanoir, 1, xxvii-xxxii, dated the original romance in the thirteenth century; he noted the doubtful attribution of the romance to Alexander de Bernay; the evident familiarity of the author with Tours and certain localities in Flanders, and with such legends as those of St.

Alexis, of St. Eustache, and of la reine Sibille. In this version H61ene bears two sons. They are stolen from her by animals, are saved by a hermit, and are named by him Lyon and Bras, — the last, because the boy carries always with him his mother's severed arm, and the first, because the lad had been stolen by a lion.

When they are baptized they receive the names Martin and Brice. Martin subse- quently becomes the famous saint of Tours. Suchier, Rom. These versions, as Dr. Rickert 1, p. The direct source of Emare must have been a French lay, which may or may not have been of Breton origin, but was very probably called, as our poem asserts, LEgaree 1. In Emare are preserved many common words of French origin, besides numerous proper names.

Among these the two names of the heroine, Emare, which comes either from esmarie afflicted, troubled or from esmaree in the sense of one of rare worth , and Egare from esgaree outcast 10 indicate a French source. Rickert, p. EMARE 29 This, it is believed, must have antedated the late thirteenth- century French and German versions, but was not earlier than In its extant form Emare shows the influence of motifs popular in romantic story from the middle of the twelfth century.

This last was known not only through such a romance as Apollonius of Tyre, but also, in all probability, through folk-tales of the type represented by Cats kin Peau d'dne, or Allerleirauh. To this combination of the Persecuted Wife and the Cat skin type of story, Suchier 1, p.

The em- phasis in Emare on the unearthly beauty of the heroine, her strange reluctance to explain herself even to her rescuers, — a trait true of practically all the versions, — the accusation brought by her mother-in-law that the young queen has given birth to monstrous offspring, indicate that the type story of Constance had also to some extent become confused with that of the Swan- Maiden legend. The details of Constance's life in Rome, where she is said to support herself by beautiful needlework, seem reminiscent of the legend of Helena, the mother of Con- stantine.

By the end of the eighth century, genuine romantic coloring had been given to this legend Rickert, 1, p. It told of the laborious, humble life of Helena and her child, of the winning of the father's attention by the boy's grace and charm, of the revelation of the lad's identity, and of the re- union of the humbly situated mother with the royal father.

The influence of this legend is especially perceptible in the va- rious versions of the Constance saga with the exception of the Vita Off 03 I through the use of the recurrent names, Helena, Constantine or Constans.

Also here, Chevalere Assigne. The more important early versions localize the story in England, Scotland, or Wales, and commonly in the ancient kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia. The hero of Trivet's version, which professes to be based on ancient Anglo-Saxon chronicles and actually does contain a number of typically Old English names, is Alle Aella , the first king of Deira, Gough, 2, pp. This ascription of the legend to an historic personage is of interest, but the historical facts which might explain it are ex- ceedingly meagre.

The two Offas of whom legend and history know are the fourth- century Offa, king of the continental Angles, and the historic Offa of Mercia With each one was associated a curi- ous marriage legend of a strange woman who came to the king after her exposure on the sea. But the Valkyrie-like Thryth, the woman who is mentioned in Beowulf 1. Yet a comparison of these facts and legends suggests certain possibilities of important connections. It is evident that by the twelfth century the stories of the two Offas had been confused ; the marriage legend of the first Offa had been more or less com- pletely transferred to Offa II, and the latter's character and rule had in turn been confused with that of his supposed ancestor.

This did not begin, however, until after Ella's death. Kenelm EMARE 3! A Carolingian legend may also have been introduced into this complex tradition. Offa II was the actual contemporary of Charlemagne and there was at least raised between them the question of the marriage of Charlemagne's daughter Bertha to Offa's son Rickert, 2, p.

This may account, in the in- extricable legendary confusion of the two Offas and their wives, for the possible association with the wife of Offa I of the famous Carolingian legend concerning Berte aus grans pies, the mother of Charlemagne. She was falsely accused and was condemned to death in a forest. Her executioners were to bring back as evidence of her death her heart or tongue. Though this story of an Innocent Persecuted Wife may have been partly instrumental in suggesting a similar tale for the Offa tradition, and though the influence of the Berte legend, especially in those elements suggestive of its Swan- Maiden origin, is evident in various versions of the Constance legend, it is improbable that the latter was in any ultimate sense derived from the other.

Their essential features are too different. The fact that the Constance story in its earliest version, the Vita Offce I, in Trivet's version and its derivatives, and to a less extent in Helene de Constantinople, in Beaumanoir's Manekine, in von Blind's poem, Die Konigstochter, is so definitely localized in England, emphasizes the possibility that there was an ancient local tale of this general type. The extant Anglo-Saxon poem, the Wife's Complaint, 15 is too fragmentary, too blindly allusive to the facts which would explain the wife's presence in the forest and her grief for her husband, to be mentioned as more than an interesting possibility.

At best it could serve only to suggest Anglo-Saxon prototypes for the local and romantic as- pects of the Constance story, but in no way could it account for the religious element which in the character of the heroine and 14 The thirteenth-century romance, Berte aus grans pies ed.

Scheler, by Adenes le Roi, was confessedly based on much older versions. Gaston Paris, Hist. Poet, de Charlemagne, , pp. The story of the Hired Murderers and the Evidence of Death which they fabricate, is current in many forms.

See Schoepperle, Tristan, 1, ; Cox, Cinderella, p. This religious bias is usually given to the legend by the epi- sodes in which the heroine suffers mutilation and miraculous restoration. Such episodes belong with a large group of folk- tales known as La Fille sans mains.

But the miraculous restoration of the children's limbs and the heroine's association with a holy man and a holy place, are strongly emphasized. Likewise in the other versions in which the Severed Hand motif is missing, in Mai und Beaflor, in La Contesse d'Anjou, in Trivet's chronicle and its derivatives, in Pecorone, in von Blind's romance, in Emare, in Fazio's novelle, its absence may be explained by the relationship of these ver- sions to each other, or by surviving traits in them which sug- gest that something has been lost.

Daumling p. Crane, , pp. In the first there is literal fulfillment of the command, " Si manus tua scandalizat te, abscinde earn," for the Pope cuts off the hand that has aroused passion through a woman's kiss ; and in the second tale, a beautiful nun whose eyes have excited the desire of a prince, plucks them out and casts them before him.

In La Manekine the legalistic Beaumanoir does not state that the girl sacrificed her hands because their beauty has aroused her father's love, 16 For the modern folk versions see Suchier, i, lviii iL and his articles in Romania; J. Bolte und G.

Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmarchen der Bruder Grimm, Leipzig, , I, ; for bibliography of texts and studies to 2, Daumling, pp. For a Philippine version of Constance, see Amer. Folk-Lore, xxix, p.

In effect, however, the pietistic intention is the same, for the final Divine restoration of the severed hand is, in the exempla and the romance, a reward for chastity and religious zeal. The miraculous element, if we are to judge from the romance versions of the Constance legend and the many folk-tales of La Fille sans Mains and the representa- tions of the story in art, 18 made the greatest appeal to the mind of the Middle Ages and may thus be held to account for the popularity of the legend and the saintly character of its heroine.

Ritson, 11, ; A. Gough, Old and Middle Eng. Texts, n, Lond. Studies : Cf. Daumling, H. Studie uber den Typus des Madchens ohne Hande inner- halb des Konstanzezyklus. Miinchen, 2. Gough, A. Holthausen, F. Huet, G. Klapper, J. Volkskunde, Heft, xix, , Breslau, ; " Sagen u.

Marchen des Mittel- alters. Popovic, P. Phil, xxxii, Rickert, E. Germain-des-Pres which represent scenes from the Fille sans Main story and from Florence-Crescentia, for illustration of scenes of women's goodness in contrast to those of women's wickedness as represented in the stories of Aristotle ridden by a woman and of Virgil in his basket. Left by her husband in the charge of two false knights, the Empress of Almayne is traitorously wooed by them.

When she rejects their advances, they in vengeance introduce a youth into her room, kill him in the presence of various nobles, and accuse her of infidelity to her lord. She is condemned to death, her husband concurring in the judgment, but is saved at the last moment by a champion who kills in judicial combat one of her accusers and forces the other to confess. The Emperor richly rewards the rescuer of his wife and only then discovers him to be his own former enemy, the chivalrous Earl of Toulouse.

In his study of the versions of this most characteristically mediaeval tale, Ludtke distinguished four main groups or types. The representative of the second group is our Middle English Lay, a poem of verses in twelve-line stanzas. Of this there 1 To Ludtke's list of versions several others must be added. Paris, p. Rubio y Lluch, , as one of the Catalan group of the Erie of Tolous stories. Thomas added the story of Gaufier de las Tors, and Stefanovic, that of Philopertus see below, n.

Bolte pp. The oldest and best is the early fifteenth-century manuscript A now in the University Library, Cambridge ; the next oldest C is in Lincoln Cathedral; and the two Ashmolean manuscripts BD are both of the sixteenth century. These four texts seem to be independent derivatives AB and CD of two versions xy which had a common source.

In Ludtke's opinion p. The " Lay " purports to be derived from a " romance," "a Lay of Bretayne," 2 a " geste — cronyclyd in Rome. In the Erie of Tolous, the heroine's name, Dame Beulybon, is a translation of the phrase dame belle et bonne from this lost original Lot, p. Of about the same period as the English version but very different in characterization and detail and in its introduction of scenes of divine intervention in which the Virgin, Gabriel, and Michael appear, is the representative of another group, the Miracle de la Marquise de la Gaudine.

This is a typical miracle play, a characteristic instance of the transformation for religious purposes of romantic themes. The fourth group of versions seems to have been derived, though indirectly, from the same source as the English poem. First, there is the Ice Planet Barbarians series, which has a total of 22 books. I read all of them. Some were great, others, not so much. There is a spin-off series, IceHome, starting with Lauren's Barbarian , of which this is book number So, in total, we have 36!!

Of course I am brushing over the exceptions to this rule: Barbarian's Choice and Barbarian's Hope from the Ice Planet Barbarians series feature blue, alien heroines. However, the fact that these two series feature the same setting Not-Hoth, AKA IceHome and the same tribe, means we not only get the same premise over and over again, but also the same faces.

That's good, because it's like watching a very long romantic soap opera with characters you adore and some you hate, and the respective hero and heroine of each book just put up the framework to show the bigger picture and story. Sometimes, nothing big happens to the tribe, and only the couple get there moment to shine, with some cameos. But sometimes, something big happens: a huge monster appears, or a volcano erupts, or an earthquake destroys everything. I will explain: I was invested in Juth and his adopted son, Pak, from the moment they appeared for the first time back in Raven's Return I believe that was their first appearance.

It's awful! Because Juth and Pak are Outcast, that is, some of their features do not fit with one of the four former island clans Tall Horn, Shadow Cat, Strong Arm and the now-gone Whatever Tails , they were seen as undeserving of a respectful name. That's why the islanders have names like O'jek, I'rek, T'chai etc. But Juth and Pak aren't known as J'th and P'k, because they are considered lesser. That's a big thing. And although it makes sense that Steph and the other humans do not care about such things and even condemn it as unfair segregation, I thought that there was not enough discussion going on for Tall Horn, Shadow Cat and Strong Arm about what they did wrong and why.

Even though one of the islanders turns out to be Juth's brother , he just apologizes and shows a bare minimum of contrition and that's it. I mean You can't deny a whole group of people their rights to a "real" name, a mate, love and hunting rights and even making fire and wearing clothes and treat them like scum of the earth until one day you just say sorry and everything's good. That is not how segregation and xenophobia is reversed into normalcy. I thought the whole matter of clan Outcast was handled poorly.

Also, the romance was pretty tepid and uninteresting compared to what was happening in the background. Now, the remaining ladies will be paired up with the remaining blue aliens. My guess list: Sam and O'Jek even though O'Jek is making eyes at Daisy and acting as her butler, I think this grumpy asshole will probably be paired with Sam after finding out her secret Flor and I'rek I don't know anything about either, so Tia and Sessah lol those two will be a mess - also Tia is kinda young still Daisy and R'Jaal it's cruel but I think the guy who desperately wants a mate will have to wait the longest for one and then get the woman who thinks her entire personality is worthless and only her prettiness matters Sep 01, Joan rated it it was ok.

Of all the Ice Home females, Steph is hands down the worst one for me. This woman is positively creepy, watching everyone, getting into their personal business, digging into their thoughts like some sicko voyeur. She had no formal training or therapeutic experience and she did more harm than good with her faux sessions. I just loved sweet, lonely Juth and his adorable adopted son Pak. These two had gone through so much emotional and mental damage as outcast.

It was awful that Steph merely viewed Of all the Ice Home females, Steph is hands down the worst one for me. It was awful that Steph merely viewed them as nothing but specimens to manipulate and control. She never intended to mate with any male This planet has less than people, the khui and resonance exist for propagation; therefore, according to canon rules, there would be no point choosing Steph as a resonance mate.

I love the world-building, character development, and sensual nature of this series. But the numerous sensual scenes between Juth and Steph seemed forced and cringey, especially knowing Steph preferred women. Also, gigantic, migrating sea monsters coming out of the ocean to lay eggs on the beach and destroying the Ice Home camp was sorta repetitive calamity. Certainly, this is a dangerous world, but another huge disaster was not as believable.

It was good to see so many kits born, seeing Pak happy and fitting in with the other kits, Gren fully accepted and happy int the tribe, and enjoying Ashtar be his glorious, cocky self. To my complete and utter surprise, I came to love diva Daisy. Despite it all, I loved the story building despite not liking or relating to the pairing. Apr 29, Darcy rated it liked it Shelves: , e-book , sci-fi , romance.

I think what made this one so good was Steph and her wanting to help the Outcast and then later getting the others to see that Juth wasn't a bad person, being Outcast, just different. While she might not have wanted to start something romantic with Juth, feelings grew between them.

I liked that and hated how that was turned against them, was glad that Steph got a talking to about not using Earth judgement, it didn't work here. The drama at the beach with the creatures was crazy! I was glad that e I think what made this one so good was Steph and her wanting to help the Outcast and then later getting the others to see that Juth wasn't a bad person, being Outcast, just different.

I was glad that everyone made it through, but the loss of home was great. I did like how this one ended, was very good for Juth and Steph. Holy Giant Crustacean!!! Another hit in the Icehome series. Honestly I really loved this one and I loved that Ruby took some creative freedoms.

I was all about it. Not only do we have a tribal outcast with a son as the hero we also have Steph who is constantly wanting to help and understand everything including peoples thoughts and feelings. Steph has been trying for months to welcome the father and son with a basket of goodies. The time has finally come for them to come out of hiding and Steph Holy Giant Crustacean!!!

The time has finally come for them to come out of hiding and Steph is not above bribing them with food and toys. Not only that but Steph is also bisexual, something that's a new twist to the series. I hope we get more of these 'twists' as the series continues because so far RD has been spot on in creating realistic and vulnerable characters who are easy to relate to and possibly even covet; if of course living on an ice planet with the man of your dreams and his spur is something you'd even like lol.

While there was another misunderstanding between the two something that's been done many a times I still really loved the dynamic and growing connection between them. Oh yeah and the giant Godzilla sized crustaceans that may or may not have taken over the beach to lay their eggs like sea turtles on our planet.

It was so crazy, scary and of course Awesome! We also got teased a bit more on the remaining sakhui and women on the beach. Time is passing more quickly on the beach and resonance is happening less and less so I cannot wait to see who ends up with who and how the heck they get together in the first place. May this series never end!! Jul 11, Ivy Deluca rated it really liked it Shelves: aliens-sci-fi.

He was wonderfully sweet and long suffering yet so caring for his son Pak. Steff was earnest, so eager to be helpful and kinda nosy but very relatable. I also liked seeing Ms. Dixon introduce a bisexual character into this incredibly heterosexual series. Yep and waaaaay too many people know about it. What should you expect from this? Now that's enough spoiler Aug 25, Mei rated it really liked it Shelves: sf. Sweet and endearing as usual!

Jul 13, Kelly rated it it was amazing Shelves: ebooks , read-in , ku-prime , sci-fi. Oh, MAN. And the aliens who populate this planet? They're pretty awesome in their own blue, hunky way. This time around we have Steph and Juth.

An unexpected migration puts the beach camp in a little bit of a pickle and Steph and Juth have to spend time to together. Quality time. With Juth's son, sure, but they get to know one another at least as much as two people can get to know Oh, MAN. With Juth's son, sure, but they get to know one another at least as much as two people can get to know one another when only one can understand the other. Then Juth gets bopped by the translator fairy and suddenly Steph is mated to the big guy and she's That sounds kind of complicated, but it's not.

Steph starts out trying to draw Juth and Pak into the tribe and along the way she really starts to like the way he looks out for her. More than that, she likes him. Just because. She also likes his son and how good a father he is.

Basically she likes the entire package. These guys like to be naked and Steph found it hard not to notice that even when she was trying not to. A little danger, a lot of steamy kisses, a wee bit of a misunderstanding, and a kind of big upheaval for the residents of the beach tribe. They're hardy folk, though, and they got through it. Things might have been tough for a while, but they made it work. Jul 13, Kayla onthefritz rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites , romance-sci-fi , kindle-unlimited , romance , reads.

Although, I wish there were a few more members just to shake things up on Icehome. Juth and little Pak are just sweet, precious aliens that have only depended on each other through all the trials life as thrown at them - plus needing to follow certain rules of the Outcast tribe.

Sweet Steph has been trying to get them to join the main tribe, she is very curious about them and thinks with her therapy background she can help them join the tribe. Big, humongous things that may be on the cover happen. Oh man - so fun! I thought the monsters would be a little different, but loved that added element, and the fact that is played in perfectly with a personal favorite couple - Devi and N'dek.

Plus Juth is a single dad, hello! Pak is so sweet, and squeezes my heart and ovaries so many times in the book, again solidifying my LOVE for single parent romances. Woah momma. I also liked that this book showed how she is always caring about others, and never lets other care for herself.

So she is drawn to Juth and Pak because they need caring for, but they in turn care for her and it is just delightful. Side bar: Most of us Icehome readers were not a fan of Bridget, and now we have a spoiled Daisy. She said there was going to be a another time jump, so maybe some more time on the ice planet will change her ways a little bit.

We also have our first outed queer character! And more babies! What is not to love here. Jul 30, Ava rated it really liked it Shelves: kindle-unlimited , never-been-kissed , romance , to-buy , reads , ebooks , brooding-hero , single-parent-romance , fated-mates , alien-romance. What a great book to add to the Icehome series! We met Juth and his adoptive son Pak in a previous book in the series. These two were outcasts to the tribes on the tropical island you learn about in the first book!

Steph has made it her life mission to convince these two to join their small tribe. But Steph ends up getting injured during one of their meetings, and Juth takes her to his cave. While in this cave, the two start to develop feelings for one another. Juth might claim Steph as his, even What a great book to add to the Icehome series! Juth might claim Steph as his, even without the coveted resonance Steph has been waiting for.

I really enjoyed this one! I love how we got to see a single-parent romance for the first time in this series! I loved the relationship that Pak and Steph form, and how she truly embraced being his mother. One of the main things that I loved about this book was Steph! I loved seeing myself in this character. Unfortunately, we don't really get female characters with midsize bodies in romance books.

But I connected to Steph so much, when it came to how clothes fit her and her slight insecurities. TROPES: alien romance, brooding hero, caretaking scene heroine breaks her ankle , fated mates, language barrier, lgbtq heroine is bi , never been kissed, single parent romance. Jul 21, Gemma Voss rated it it was amazing. I don't usually bother to write reviews for Ruby's books.

They are all five stars to me and that's just a fact. I am making a point of writing this review because I saw so many criticisms of the choice to include a bisexual heroine. So, I wanted to make a positive review. Let me just say, this is a classic Ruby book. We have two flawed but lovable people who are put in a pickle, have some miscommunications, and end up falling in love and healing each other because they learn to fully understand I don't usually bother to write reviews for Ruby's books.

We have two flawed but lovable people who are put in a pickle, have some miscommunications, and end up falling in love and healing each other because they learn to fully understand and embrace one another. That's Ruby's recipe and I just eat that shit up every time! No, she's not writing at a lesser quality as I saw stated in other reviews. No, she's not changing up her formula or "fixing what's not broken".

She just so happened to represent a woman that is attracted to both men and women. It's wonderful, but it's a character's attribute and it actually has little to no effect on the plot. Steph expresses her feeling that she is attracted to a person's mind first. Juth is a puzzle to her that she wants to unravel, and that is the start of their heartwarming connection. I love to see the ice planet world unfold, and this was a particularly good book for those that are interested in the world building.

A crazy event takes place that shakes things up once again for the Icehome community! Jul 19, Absolutelyred rated it it was ok. She felt inconsistent and at times disingenuos. So it felt forced because it was. Sep 02, Mae rated it it was amazing Shelves: aliens , bad-decisions , compassionate-heroine , kids-involved , introspective-heroine , likeable-heroine , keeping-secrets , miscommunication-trope , urban-or-paranormal-or-fantasy , close-knit-family.

Jul 11, SheLove2Read rated it really liked it Shelves: So sweet! Jul 12, Molly rated it it was amazing. I could not put this book down. I really enjoyed the two coming together despite the miscommunication and everything. I love how after pouring her heart out to Juth, that they resonate. Such a sweet HEA. I have new respect for O'jek after his apology to his brother. Also as a side character, I was glad Daisy showed growth as a person and is really great with kids.

I really liked this one. And now that this is the most current to date of the series, here are my predictions!! Jul 22, Leah rated it it was ok. Ok This one wasn't my favorite.

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